The political and security relationship between India and Southeast Asia (SEA) has developed beyond the traditional domain after the Cold War era. As the Cold War ended, and new geopolitics were redefined, both parties sought a strategic approach through greater engagement with extra-regional partners. Since 2003, both parties have engaged in various political partnerships with SEA states and a few security challenges collectively. The paper answers the following questions: what is the pattern of this relationship? What kind of mechanism has been adopted by both parties in strengthening their relationship? Is the factor of China imperative enough to 'boost' India's efforts in reinforcing political and security relations with SEA states? Using content analysis, emerging themes from relevant literature by selected scholars in the area of India and SEA states' relations are explored. This paper also reviews several governmental documents and official websites. In general, some scholars agree that the development of the relationship between India and SEA states is important in creating a regional balance with other international actors especially China. This paper aims to examine the growing relations between India and SEA states in the political and security terms since 2003. The paper suggests that the strong political and security relationship between India and SEA states creates an "external balancing strategy" to counter-balance the presence of China in the region. Meanwhile, it also shows that SEA states are turning to India as a counterweight to China and the US in the region.
India-Southeast Asia relations, maritime security, political relation, security cooperation
Human trafficking is a growing transnational crime, threatening national security, causing economic losses and damaging the domestic human rights reputation of countries. It is the reflection of the problem facing the global societies today, including Malaysia and Nigeria. The countries were chosen as the study because both Malaysia and Nigeria ratified United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. The countries subsequently enacted national policies in compliance with UN Trafficking Protocol. The aim of this article is to: (1) review the current studies of human trafficking in both countries by looking at nature, pattern, and some distinct characteristic of human trafficking in both countries; (2) outline the gap in the literature and make some suggestion for future research on human trafficking in both countries. The review of the literature is carried out based on relevant existing literature and past studies on their commitment (Malaysia and Nigeria) in responding to the UN Trafficking Protocols. The review reveals the challenges faced by both countries in combating human trafficking, are not of policy formulation but effective implementation of Anti-Trafficking in persons and Anti-Smuggling of Migrants Act and Trafficking in Persons Prohibition Law Enforcement and Administration Act (TPPLEAA) in Malaysia and Nigeria respectively. Moreover, the review shows that Protection and Assistance of Trafficked Persons, Prevention of Human Trafficking, Prosecution of Traffickers and Promotion of Partnership (4Ps) in combating human trafficking have not been adequately examined. The study suggests the ways to address human trafficking issues in both countries.
Human trafficking, Malaysia, Nigeria, policy response
The aesthetic science of human ecology constantly attempts to find the perfect balance of the current dynamic human environment. In the quest for balance, contemporary ideas have taken over traditional thoughts and identity issues arise in the community, for example in the arts. The art of music and puisi Melayu (Malay poetry) have always strived on the quest for aesthetical beauty. Therefore, the intent of composing music for 'Prosa Air Mata', a poetry written by Dato' Usman Awang, is justifiably appropriate. The combination of two different art forms - music and poetry - into a single artwork embodies the creativity and emotive qualities of music and text. Responding towards the issues of identity, the prominence of a Malay theme, especially in the choice of a Malay language source of text, is juxtaposed with a contemporary music ensemble not found in Malay culture. The resulting vocal composition of 'Prosa Air Mata' shows the composer highlighting Malay literature into a more contemporary idiom of music and arts.
Contemporary music, Malay poetry, music, music composition, music and text
Since the beginning of twentieth country, social work has become an integral part of higher education systems throughout the world and becoming increasingly important due to globalization and internationalization. Therefore, development of social work program particularly at the undergraduate level in Malaysia's public universities should be given special attention in order to meet the standards. This paper is a review and analysis of the existing literature regarding the development of social work undergraduate program in Malaysia. The rigorous search from Scopus and Web of Science databases identified 15 related studies that examined broader development of social work education including the issues, and challenges as well as opportunities faced by the Malaysia's public universities in their quest to deliver a cohesive social work undergraduate program. Among the issues identified to be significant in the development of social work program in Malaysia include unqualified educator, non-existence of a professional body and act in social work, influence of western ideology, and governance issue. The issues and challenges addressed in this paper create opportunities to provide solutions including to implement further training on community development programs for social work educators, social work administration and practitioners, establishment of social work act to regulate and maintain the discipline as well as to strengthen social relationship with stakeholders in order to encourage them in facilitating the learning of alternative skills for social work program to meet the standards that can be recognized internationally.
Research on marriage, its correlates and consequences, has been mostly done in the Western countries and often the dependent variable links with the subjective evaluation on the quality of the marriage. Marital instability has been steadily included as one of the outcome variables which may imply the lack of commitment towards sustaining the relationship. Considering the increased trend in number of recorded divorce cases among the Malays in Malaysia, this study utilized Rusbult's Investment Model to examine the relationships between marital satisfaction, alternatives, investment and commitment toward marriage among married working women. The model postulates that an increases in satisfaction, decreases in quality of alternative, and increases in investment size would increase one's commitment in the marital relationship, hence, hindering marital dissolution. Using data on three hundred fifteen (n=315) married women from dual-earner couples in Malaysia, this study aims to determine the relationships between the aforementioned variables. Significant bivariate relationships between all independent variables and marital commitment were established. Findings of multiple regression analyses on the relevant variables for the model revealed that alternatives in marriage served as the strongest predictor of marital commitment, followed by marital satisfaction and marital investment. This model explained 65% of variance of marital commitment of the respondents in the study. However, controlling for selected socio-demographic variables, the findings indicated that married working women who perceived low quality of alternatives, with lower family income and higher marital satisfaction tended to have greater marital commitment. This additional analysis which explains only 45% of variance of marital commitment of the respondents also revealed that marital investment was not one of the significant predictors. Findings of the study lend support for the hypotheses derived from the model. Embracing contextual variables in the analysis explains the role of family income, and highlights variation in the role of marital investment as a predictor for marital commitment. The insignificant role of marital investment may imply that the inclination to weigh on marriage in terms of gain and lost may not be perceived as critical among the respondents. Confounding roles of cultural elements, economic interdependence and its associated variables may need to be further explored in future studies.
Commitment, dual earner couple, investment model, marital quality, working women
Exposure to negative life events can be extremely stressful for adolescents from divorced families and effective coping strategy can help to alleviate their stress. The current study examined the relationship between negative life events, coping strategy, and mental health problem among adolescents from divorced families. This study also explored the moderating role of coping strategy in the relationship. The sample of this study was 480 adolescents from divorced families, which were identified through multistage cluster sampling. The Malay Version of 12-Items General Health Questionnaire was implemented to measure mental health problem among the adolescents. The Brief Adolescent Life Event Scale was implemented to measure negative life events among adolescents. Brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (COPE) was implemented to measure coping strategy. The current study revealed that mental health problem was significantly correlated with negative life events (r = 0.498, p < 0.001), maladaptive coping (r = 0.537, p < 0.001), and adaptive coping (r = -0.417, p < 0.001). The results found that both maladaptive (interaction effect = 0.158, p < 0.01) and adaptive coping (interaction effect = -0.150, p < 0.001) as significant moderators in the relationship between negative life events and mental health problem among adolescents. Specifically, the impact of negative life events is less severe when adolescents reported frequent application of adaptive coping. In contrast, negative life events are most detrimental when adolescents reported high reliance on maladaptive coping. The current study demonstrated that the magnitude of the relationship between negative life events and mental health problem is highly depending on the choice of coping strategy. The present study concluded that adaptive coping can effectively mitigate while maladaptive coping exacerbates the adverse impact of negative life events. The findings of this study have practical implications in helping adolescents to bounce back from the negative consequences of parental divorce.
Adolescents, divorced families, mental health problems, negative life events
Elder maltreatment or abuse is an important issue to be addressed, especially in institutional care settings where most of the elders are vulnerable and dependent on others for their daily activities. With a rapidly growing older population and increasing rate of chronic and degenerative diseases, long term care system will be on high demand. Research suggests that staff's knowledge and attitude condoning elder abuse are the possible risk factor for executing abusive behaviors against residents in the institutions but have been studied infrequently. Hence, this paper focuses on the prevalence of elder maltreatment in aged care institutions in Selangor. Staff's knowledge, attitude and practice towards elder maltreatment in the aged care institution are discussed. This descriptive study utilized simple random sampling method to identify 110 care workers from 31 public and private aged care institutions in Selangor. Findings showed that majority of the respondents had a low level of knowledge concerning the management of elder maltreatment in a residential setting (M=16.3; SD=8.1), while more than two third (71.8%) were reported to have low level of positive attitude against elder maltreatment. Results also highlighted that majority of the respondents (90.9%) reflected an 'abusive' behavior towards elderly resident at least once during the past 6 months where the physical and psychological maltreatment related to caring activities were most common among them. Taking into account that demographic ageing is taking shape in Malaysia, more attention should be given on education and support towards institutional aged care setting as the primary preventive strategy.
Attitude, care worker, elder abuse, elder maltreatment, institutions, knowledge, practice
This article considers the relationship between judicial conceptions of paramountcy principle and the participatory rights of Malaysian children in custody dispute. The scope of this article is extended to the coverage of Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (the Convention) but limited to family justice. The methodology is legal, library-based research focusing mainly on primary and secondary sources and international jurisprudence. The findings indicate a need for reforms in certain areas such as in developing a standard judicial procedure in monitoring the court's adherence to the Convention's provision, in empowering the professionals with relevant expertise in dealing with vulnerable parties, and in promoting the variant method of obtaining the views of the children rather than merely in-camera judicial interview.
Child right, child participation, family justice, judicial conversation
Malaysia and China have established formal diplomatic relations since 31 May 1974. The bilateral relations between Malaysia and China are well developed in the economic and trade fields, followed by tourism. Therefore, there are many records and studies on these aspects. However, in a recent development, the bilateral relation in the field of education has become more and more important, thus the bilateral educational exchanges between Malaysia and China has become the focus of this writing. This article has two main objectives, firstly, to elaborate the background of Malaysia-China relations; and secondly, to examine the achievement of educational exchange between Malaysia and China since 1974, especially on the higher education aspect. Primary data for this study were collected through interviews and a total of ten informants were selected based on purposive sampling and snowball sampling. Meanwhile, secondary data were collected from journal articles, reports, and websites. Both data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings of this study indicate that, due to the ideological issue, Malaysia and China did not have any actual contact until 1989 when the issue of the Communist Party of Malaya was solved. However, the development of Malaysia-China relations was initially slow until the rise of China and the promotion of the "Belt and Road Initiative," when the relations between the two countries entered the most splendid period in history. Nevertheless, the rapid development of Malaysia-China relations has caused some controversial voices among Malaysians. Malaysia and China began to conduct educational cooperation officially after they signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on education cooperation in 1997. In addition, mutual recognition of academic higher education qualifications was finally resolved when the two countries signed the Framework Agreement to Facilitate Mutual Recognition in Academic Higher Education Qualifications in 2011. Today, it is believed that the educational exchange between Malaysia and China has become better and more significant.
The paper examined the effect of the human capital investment on economic wellbeing in business apprenticeship training centers (BATCs) in Kaduna, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from 267 respondents via cluster sampling from nine local government areas of the 23 local government areas in the state. The result indicates that there was a significant positive relationship between human capital investment and economic wellbeing. Hence, BATCs acts as a tool in capacity building endeavor among the youths in the state, and this is a part of state-sponsored community development process developing youth community.
Community development, economic wellbeing, human capital investment
This study focuses on understanding the level and awareness of gender equality concepts among civil servants in selected agencies under The Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development, Malaysia (MWFCD). The paper is based on the findings made on a part of the study on knowledge of gender issues which was obtained through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) analysis. A total of 38 informants consisting of 15 officers from professional groups and 23 support groups of six government agencies were involved in the data collection process. The group division aimed to look at the differences in their views based on gender dissimilarity. The study found that most informants demonstrated moderate understanding on the meaning of gender but were able to distinguish between the concepts of 'gender' and 'sex' in terms of biological definition and social roles. Understanding level among the informants differs due to certain characteristics such as social background, service grade and the assigned department. In general, informants gave a high credential to the role and equal rights in between the sexes and showed great awareness on gender issues that arose. However, dissatisfaction related to men welfare issue was indicated by the male informants as they perceived that they were not enjoying the same privileges as women. Overall, the women's group informants among both professional and support staff showed a fair awareness of gender equality as compared to the men. In conclusion, informants in the study have demonstrated a good level of understanding and awareness on gender equality issues. However, some improvements in terms of training and practices are needed to ensure substantial execution of gender mainstreaming among all civil servants in Malaysia as recommended by "Corong Model" introduced by the research at the end of the study.
Awareness of gender, civil servants, gender mainstreaming, understanding
Eco-labeling inititates the change in marine ornamental fishing pattern in North Bali by promoting environmental awareness and raising issues regarding inequality in the social, economic, political, and ecological dimension of marine ornamental fish fisherman's livelihood. There are several actors involved in the eco-labeling issues which are state, non-governmental organization (NGO), private sectors and fishermen. This paper aimed to analyze the characteristic of actors, their interest and impacts on marine ornamental fish trade, and their certification of eco-labeling by using actor-approach analysis. This research used mixed methods of both qualitative in nature and quantitative in approach. This study revealed that exporters had the most powerful influence on price and demand controller in Les Village's marine ornamental fish trade, while middlemen (the representative of exporters in village level) were on the second. Middlemen had the control over Les Village's fishermen income, with such regulation that fishermen only captured a number of fishes and certain type of fishes ordered by the middleme in a day, thus limiting the fishermen's income. The state could be alineated from the Les Village's marine environmental movements as well as state's role in the marine ornamental trade as it has unclear interest in marine ornamental fish trade, even though Marine and Fisheries Services Buleleng and Industry and Commerce Services Bali Province attempted to look for a position role in the trade.
Eco-labelling, ornamental fish fisher, political ecology, politicized environment
Philippines sits on a global hotspot where the epicenter of marine biodiversity is found. To maintain ecological integrity of this seascape, community-based marine conservation projects like the Calatagan Mangrove Forest Conservation Park (CMFCP) have been introduced. However, in the years of implementing these projects, studies to determine the importance of gender roles in conservation were very few. This study was conducted to analyze gender role participation of the people who worked in the conservation site. Conducted through field interviews, observations, and focus group discussions, the research adapted the analytical gender and environment framework by the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation. In managing CMFCP, gender complementation was observed where tasks perceived as heavy were dominated by men and management of resources were done by women. In addition, there has been an observed increase of women's participation to marine conservation in parallel to high number of women holding executive roles. Of the nineteen tasks identified, eight were participated by women. Productive work of women concentrated on wet season whereas their domestic roles were observed for both seasons. On the other hand, men's productive role was observed for both seasons where their domestic roles were seen only during dry season. Both genders were knowledgeable on the different marine resources present in the area. Women were able to identify more resources than men in terms of class. This may be linked to women's role as tour guides. In this program, the rise of women working in marine conservation was observed.
Indigenous knowledge is a set of principles, skills, practices, rituals, and customs developed by a particular race, inherited from generation to generation. Indigenous knowledge offers a unique and holistic understanding towards every aspect of life. In biodiversity conservation, integrating indigenous knowledge has become a trend. In many studies, indigenous knowledge has been proven to present a more human ecological approach to manage biodiversity loss. This paper aims to explore the practice of indigenous knowledge by looking at three components of indigenous knowledge system viz. agriculture, traditional medicine, and river management. A preliminary study was conducted in Kota Belud. Data was collected through a focus group discussion through purposively sampled informants consisting of Bajau, Dusun, and Iranun. The findings of the study revealed that the indigenous peoples in Kota Belud still practiced their knowledge. This study also emerges some issues related to indigenous knowledge mainly in knowledge degradation.
Gongs are heard during Gawai celebration on first and second of June every year as an indication of appreciation for the harvest obtained. Gongs are a symbol of prosperity for the Bidayuh (Horsbourgh, 1858). Gong players gather and perform and are frequently joined by the traditional Bidayuh dance at an open space, 'awah' of the longhouse known as 'Kupuo'. There are three levels of tone attribute derivative from the gongs, namely 'canang', 'satu' and 'tawak'. In the community of Annah Rais, Padawan, Sarawak, there are tube zithers known as pratuokng, which contain a similar tone structure as the Bidayuh gong set and offer comparative collections. Seen from the point of view of sound preservation, the Audiovisual Research Collection for Performing Arts (ARCPA) located at the Music Department of Faculty of Human Ecology, UPM is stepping forward in developing elusive learning for a scholarly group to get to far-reaching database collections. In this respect, an exploratory examination concerning pratuokng collection is directed by means of sound simulation via Frequency-Modulation Synthesis (FM Synthesis), draws nearer as a model. The 'Audio Modulation' method, especially by means of frequency modulation, empowers summing sine wave to be a structure at different amplitudes. Subsequently, creating a non-consonant partials of frequencies sidebands will build up a metallic timbre, empowering the acknowledgment of the pratuokng music back in the traditional Bidayuh gong ensemble.
It is obvious that the demand for security is one of the basic needs for human survival, and the effects of terrorist such as Boko Haram on the society have gone beyond the expectations of individuals in Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria. Even though many have relocated themselves out of the area, there are still those who continued to stay in the neighborhood. Therefore, the general objective of this paper is to examine the level of residents' resilience and to compare if there are significant differences in the level of resilience based on age, gender and religious inclination towards insecurity in Maiduguri. Resilience Theory by Kurt Lewin (1943) was used to underpin this study. Using a structured questionnaire, data were collected from a total of 383 respondents in Maiduguri. The findings from the descriptive statistics revealed a moderate level of resilience among the residents (M = 3.09, SD =0.78). Independent sample t-test showed a statistically significant difference in the level of resilience between male and females (t (381) = -2.518, p < 0.05). Additionally the ANOVA analysis revealed no significant difference in the level of resilience based on age and religious inclination (F (2,380) = 1.105, p >0.05 and F (2,380) = 0.771, p > 0.05). Based on the findings, the authors concluded that females were found to revitalize more easily as compared to males after an attack. In general, there are some residents in the study area who show the ability to revitalize and withstand the security threat and resist relocation irrespective of their age and religious inclination. Thus, the authors are of the opinion that to ensure safe neighbourhood, the government should not only concentrate on the rehabilitation of internally displaced person but efforts should also be geared towards the residents who decided to remain in the neighbourhood even though it is affected by the insurgency.
The term Social Entrepreneurship (SE) is not new in Malaysia but not many studies were done on this community, especially on their subjective well-being. This term has long been debated among scholars because it is a fast-growing phenomenon among both academics and practitioners in the area. SE is defined as an entrepreneurial activity known to address basic human needs such as giving access to basic education, employment, health aid, community development, and socio-economic empowerment. It differs from commercial entrepreneurship because SE focuses on social strategies and values because they believe in the importance of creating social changes, which has the potential payoff and transformational benefits to those involved whether in providing or receiving the services. Such impact is reflected on social entrepreneur's satisfaction, happiness, meaningfulness of life, social connectedness and health. However, the limited research on well-being in Malaysia relies on measures that simply assess an individual's satisfaction with specific aspects of life such as housing and income. Therefore, these measures are not appropriate to assess the positive impact of SE on social entrepreneur's well-being. Thus, after meticulous reviews of literature through Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), an insight on the number of records were identified through the applied search engines. As a result, the search stratagem came out with a framework of well-being measures that take into account behavioural, cognitive intentions, motivational choices, feeling and functioning of social entrepreneurs. After a full text review, about seven articles were included yielding four identified domains associated to well-being and social entrepreneurs.
Social entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurs, social impact, well-being domains
For centuries, education has been used as a tool of assimilation, and this has been the Indigenous experience in Australian education system. Nevertheless, for those who has successfully negotiated it, education provides the key to self-determination, active and equal participation in the society. Since 2007, United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) is relevant to the Australia's Indigenous people. It has provided several guidelines, such as self-determination, rights and equity, which should be given to them. The UNDRIP should be not just an acceptance of a symbolic gesture but a more active 'recognition of rights'. Therefore, this paper reviews the current and the past reports that reflect the shifts in government policy of Indigenous education in Australia during the important key period when government policy relating to the Indigenous people shifted between 1974 and 2014. Several themes are identified as outcomes from the document analysis including: assimilation; equity and equality; participation and self-determination; and rights and recognition. The findings suggest that the Australian government still lack in their efforts to recognize and acknowledge the equity, the rights, and the self-determination of the Aboriginal people and Torres Straits Islander as 'the first people' in the country. It can be concluded that, Australia is yet to achieve at a substantive level the implementation of the UNDRIP. As a suggestion, alteration to the current curriculum framework needs to be done to improve the rights and equity of education development and cultivation of relationships between schools and Indigenous communities to ensure a successful outcome in the Indigenous education policy. Besides that, government of Australia should take an important and positive step approach towards the recognition of Indigenous Education rights through the adoption of the UNDRIP in their practice and constitution to recognize Indigenous languages, cultures and Indigenous knowledge in the education system in line with mainstream society.