The importance of youth participation in the decision-making process in nation building should not be underestimated. Studies have shown that youth in marginalised communities lack opportunities for engagement in the democratic process. However, today's rapidly-advancing media technology provides an opportunity for the authorities to tackle this problem. This research investigates how participation of youth in marginalised communities can be increased through the use of media. The researchers developed an instrument to measure the participation of youth in the decision-making process via different media. This paper presents the instrumentation process and items used for such purpose. The tested instrument is called 'Measure of Media and Youth Participation in Social and Political Activities'. It consists of five sections, which are (a) Demography, (b) Media use, (c) Level of youth participation, (d) Domain of youth participation, and (e) Youth perception of media and participation.
Marginalised communities, media use, social and political participation, youth participation
The main purpose of this paper is to gain an insight into the importance of communication skills in employment and to determine significant roles that support communication ability in the Malaysian context. Data for the analysis were collected and gathered through a questionnaire survey that was distributed online and manually. The results were then analysed based on the frequency and percentage of variables. The findings of the study indicated that almost all respondents agreed that communication skills are important in employment. Five key determinants were provided for the respondents to evaluate their importance in helping to develop communication skills. In view of this, formal education is perceived as the most substantial role in improving one's communication skills. It is thus recommended to respond to the key factors through integration of different approaches to enhance language proficiency and communication skills among youths.
Communication skills, employment, formal education, language proficiency, youths
This paper examines the effect of the physical environment (PE) of urban neighbourhoods on the character of youths. The outdoor features of a neighbourhood are often related to the physical environment and social interaction among the people living in the urban community. This study was done to gather data through focus group discussions, observations and interviews with youths, parents and stakeholders to examine the effect of PE on the character of youths. The results showed that outdoor features do influence the character of youths in an urban neighbourhood community. Neighbourhood community should play an important role in providing youths with proper outdoor features and providing opportunities for them to become more productive and innovative.
Character of youths, outdoor features, physical environment, social interaction, urban neighbourhoods
Obesity has been recognised as a major public health concern due to lack of physical activity and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to determine the status of physical activity level and body mass index (BMI) among youth living in low-cost housing in Kuala Lumpur. The respondents were youths aged between 15 and 25 (19.80, SD=3.17) years old and consisted of 214 males and 172 females. The BMI value was determined through the ratio of body weight and height, while the level of physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The descriptive analysis showed that the mean BMI of male respondents was (22.65, SD=3.11) kg/m2 and (23.73, SD=3.30) kg/m2 for the females. A total of 227 (58.80%) of the respondents had low-level physical activity (441.57, SD=81.64) MET-min·wk-1. Correlation analysis showed that there was positive correlation between age and BMI (r=0.18, p<0.001), meanwhile, there was negative correlation between physical activity and age (r=-0.27, p<0.001), and between physical activity and BMI (r=-0.24, p<0.001). The study also found the obese group (obese class I) had lower physical activity than other group at the significant level of p<0.05, F (4, 381)=10.483, p<0.001. The youth living in low-cost housing demonstrated poor physical activity level. Therefore, efforts should be made to promote the importance of a healthy lifestyle and being physically active in order to avoid obesity and other health problems.
This study aimed to explore the factors related to job preferences among youths living in marginalised and non-marginalised areas in Sabah. Four dimensions related to job preferences were identified in this study: communality, job comfort, job goals and self-realisation. The study also explored differences in job preferences by gender and ethnicity. A total of 732 youths participated in the study, including individuals from marginalised (N=521) and non-marginalised (N=211) communities. The study found no significant differences in job preferences among marginalised and non-marginalised youths in Sabah. Job comfort was found to be the key factor determining job preferences among youths. In terms of gender, job preferences among young men and women differed only in the dimension of communality in non-marginalised communities and in the dimension of self-realisation in marginalised communities. In terms of ethnicity, there were no significant differences for non-marginalised youth, but significant differences existed in the dimension of self-realisation for marginalised youth. This study's findings can contribute to the development of government policies aiming to help young people find employment.
Embedded in democratic constitutions are the rights and freedoms that accompany citizenship, and these rights and freedoms include participation. The central concept of social participation is that citizens can transform themselves from passive bystanders into actively involved citizens working towards what they perceive to be the public good. It is crucial for young generations to participate in socio-political activities, as the development of any society in large part has to do with this demography. This paper examines the offline civic and political participation of 15 to 25-year-olds in Malaysia. The paper is based on a nation-wide survey of 5,042 youth members in Malaysia both from marginalised and mainstream communities. The findings show that this demographic is more active in civic participation as compared to political participation. The top three forms of participation were found to be forms of civic participation, with the least amount of participation found in the political sphere. While mainstream youth appear to have a higher amount of participation compared to those from marginalised communities, their participation is still average overall. Additional resources are thus needed for the economic, cultural and social development of the youth in Malaysia to support future trends in participation. A level playing field is required for young people both from marginalised and mainstream communities to improve their social participation.
Civic participation, Malaysia, marginalised community, political participation, young generation
Efforts have been made to narrow the digital divide in disadvantaged communities through increased investment in Internet infrastructure, with such initiatives particularly advanced by community-based facilities. The hope is for such investment to afford more underprivileged groups the benefits of 21st century society, where many public services are, by default, accessible online. Accordingly, this study focusses on how 15-to-25-year-old Malaysian youths in marginalised communities engage with the Internet in performing various activities in their everyday lives. The findings indicate that the majority of these individuals have access to the Internet but that their engagement spans only basic activities such as communication and uploading and downloading of materials. In terms of intermediate and advanced activities, the investigated youths minimally shop online, search for educational materials and participate in civic and political causes. The results also indicate that attitudes towards the Internet considerably influence the decision of Malaysian youth to occupy themselves with digital activities. Fostering a digitally-inclusive society necessitates expanding digital engagement beyond basic activities - a goal that can be achieved by improving the digital literacy of youth and offering them participatory literacy programmes.
Digital engagement, digital inclusion, Internet, participation, young generation
This paper examines the extent of the initiatives and change created as the result of social innovation activities in start-ups carried out by youths who live in marginalised communities in Malaysia. The targeted samples were between the ages of 20 and 25 years old. The empirical process involved capturing both tacit and explicit entrepreneurial values in building social innovation moves. This was to fulfil the urgent need for an innovative social innovation model that examines the current trend among youth start-ups. The research adopted the descriptive correlational research design and involved a total of 423 young start-ups. This sampling frame included young entrepreneurs who had engaged in social innovation and micro businesses in Miri and Kuching, Sarawak and the East Coast region of Malaysia. It conceptualised the process of social innovation, its core activities (social entrepreneurship) and the traits of the social entrepreneurs and was supported by their desire to provide solutions to the world's most pressing issues (the creation of social enterprise). This was tested using structural equation modelling. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) procedure was employed to validate the measurement model of the latent constructs involved. All the constructs had achieved threshold validity and reliability. The findings revealed that the model also supports the robustness of the European Commission of Social Innovation (2013) and the Malaysia Model of Social Innovation (Raja Suzana, 2016). One of the implications is on the outcome of social innovation initiatives. It can be concluded that this paper provides insight into and develops a new model of social innovation. The greatest change was in the productive powers of society and the passion of this group of individuals. The outcomes contributed to both sound practical and theoretical aspects of social innovation value and a model of new venture using social innovation. This paper also contributes to the how and what that create change in this particular context before determining a solution.
Entrepreneurial intention, Malaysia, social entrepreneurship, social innovation, youth
The paper presents a theoretical understanding of the impact of social innovation on the success of an enterprise. Social innovation is framed within the context of the European Commission Social Innovation principles (2013) and the Social Return on Investments Model of New Economic Foundations (2004) and Social Innovation Model in Malaysia (Raja Suzana, 2015). A total of 130 new and young enterprises participated in this survey. Findings indicated that social innovation has a positive and significant relationship with the success of an enterprise. This paper offers indicators developed based on a valid and reliable instrument, which has been empirically tested for its validity and reliability. It was found that social innovation offers a viable model in establishing economic viability and multiple economic specialisations. However, this has its own limitation as it depends heavily on the supporting ecosystem that each region has to offer. The study concludes that social innovation will positively create an impact and play a significant role in entrepreneurship in economic viability if an ecosystem interacts well within the needs of the new and young enterprises. Future work that focusses on specific social innovation programmes and actions that can create more values for new and young enterprises is recommended.
New venture creation, Malaysia, social entrepreneurship, social innovation, youth entrepreneurship
The heart of social innovation is the willingness to try out ideas that are helpful to others. Social entrepreneurs are also action researchers who learn primarily through experimentation, not relying solely on theory. This paper aims to revisit social innovation values that exist among youths who are keen to create social change. This paper is the product of an extensive review of literature and content analysis from social entrepreneurship empirical studies. In order to test the social innovation model, survey questions were developed and distributed to 203 young entrepreneurs living in marginalised communities in Malaysia. Findings show that educating young people to think and behave this way is different from helping them to acquire knowledge. It was also found that more young people are keen to improvise their careers by responding to the shifting needs and opportunities when they are engaged in social innovation. As social innovation addresses social issues, it creates social change and raises concerns about non-economic values. This paper recommends that in order to facilitate the multiplier effect, the Malaysian government should support more young entrepreneurs from marginalised communities in order to tackle social problems, improve communities and change people's life.
Malaysia, social entrepreneurship, social inclusion, social innovation, youth entrepreneurship
Wakaidesu (若いです) or Young Japanese have been seen as being indifferent to politics and do not seem to regard political parties as representing their concerns. This is a blow to the Japanese democracy as the great majority of youth are politically apathetic and they are distancing themselves from active participation in politics. This paper describes the growing political apathy among young Japanese citizens aged between 20 and 35 that needs to be changed. Policies of the state should advocate for issues of interest to younger voters. The engagement of Japanese youth is reflected in three major issues: the feminist movement, community service and environmental protection, all of which will be discussed in this paper. The country urgently needs more young Japanese to be engaged in issues concerning the relationship between the economic and political state of the nation. The paper argued that the political involvement of young Japanese is not being attended to seriously. Instead, political parties are busy securing votes from the largest group of voters, ignoring the young. This has led to the increase of political apathy among young voters, bringing the Japanese democracy into decline. Finally, the paper will also discuss a cultural ethnographic study on the use of the media among Malaysian youth as a comparative analysis to show how self-identity and social identity can be built.
Political apathy, political participation, young Japanese, voter
One of the many hurdles that youth start-ups are facing in support of their pre-start-up capitals is access to finance. This paper highlights the expectations of Malaysian youth start-ups on crowdfunding activities as one of the sources of alternative funding in assisting them to pursue pre-start-up capitals. The paper examines the types of crowdfunding models being offered in the Malaysian setting. It further explores which types of crowdfunding models appear to be more suitable for the needs of youth pre-start-ups. In this context, a quantitative survey was conducted to investigate relevant models, its awareness levels and expectations of youth start-ups in selecting crowdfunding. The survey received 202 responses of Malaysian youth start-ups with a business of not less than two years. The overarching impression is that Malaysia, despite being the first ASEAN country with its own legal framework on crowdfunding, has placed focus merely on equity crowdfunding. Within the context of youth start-ups, the results indicate that youth prefer donation-based and reward-based crowdfunding. Results from the multiple regression analysis further show that little support was received from relevant authorities on promoting donation-based and reward-based crowdfunding to assist youth start-ups. The originality and value of this paper lie on the expectation of youth start-ups to pursue their business venture. While equity crowdfunding offers more risks, donation-based and reward-based crowdfunding provide better opportunities to ease youth start-ups to pursue the needs of their venture.
Crowdfunding, donation-based crowdfunding, entrepreneurship, equity-based crowdfunding, Malaysia, youth start-ups
A safe neighbourhood provides a trusting platform for people to interact with one another, and in turn, promotes higher levels of social capital among neighbours. Young people who grow up in a safe neighbourhood may learn to form trusting relationships with their neighbours. This experience might enhance their subjective well-being by reconciliation and regeneration of their own worldviews with that of others. On the other hand, these trusting relationships with neighbours could increase the perceived safety of the neighbourhood because the sense of security is based on the amount of help they could get, especially in emergency circumstances. Thus, in this paper, we aim to explore the role of Perceived Neighbourhood Safety as a mediator to Neighbourhood Social Capital (NSC) and Subjective Well-Being. We surveyed 5,237 youths ranging in age from 15 to 25 years. Respondents were recruited using stratified and clustering sampling. Results from the Pearson correlation show a significant relationship between NSC and the Subjective Well-Being of youth; youth who trust and reciprocate towards their neighbourhoods perceive life as happier. This study also found that Perceived Neighbourhood Safety is a partial mediator for NSC and Subjective Well-Being in youth. These findings show that the importance of the neighbourhood bond goes beyond crime prevention to include well-being of youth in a community. Therefore, there is a need to promote activities that could strengthen the elements of trust and reciprocity among neighbours. Future research could look into how different activities could enhance the subjective well-being of neighbours from different age groups.
Neighbourhood safety, social capital, subjective well-being, young people