Hisham N. Farrag, Khaled Metwally, Shinya Ikeno and Tamaki Kato
Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 28, Issue S2, December 2020
Keywords: Antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, cyclic decapeptides, Escherichia coli, SPPS
Published on: 30 December 2020
Pathogens can acquire high resistance against even the most powerful antibiotics because of the long periods of treatment and high usage of antimicrobial agents. In addition, the severe side effects of commonly used antibiotics can initiate secondary diseases or may lead to death. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been reported to exhibit prokaryotic selectivity and low microbial resistance. Furthermore, AMPs show a good ability to penetrate the cell walls of microorganisms. In this study, a cyclic decapeptide and its linear counterpart were synthesized by a standard solid phase peptide synthesis method (SPPS) in a quantitative yield of the linear decapeptide (97%) and a good yield of the cyclic form (45%). Antibacterial studies were performed using Escherichia coli (a widespread Gram-negative pathogen) and Bacillus thuringiensis as a representative Gram-positive pathogen. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were evaluated by the broth microdilution method. The cyclic peptide and its linear counterpart exhibited MIC values of 0.16 and 0.3 mg/mL, respectively, against Escherichia coli. Against Bacillus thuringiensis, the peptides had the same MIC value of 0.24 mg/mL. Time-kill studies were performed using E. coli, which indicated a fast killing effect of both peptides (≥ 99% of the bacterial cells) after 1 h of incubation using a concentration of two times the MIC value for each peptide. Moreover, bacterial cell viability studies against E. coli carried out using a high bacterial concentration showed that both peptides have a maximum killing effect of more than 80% of the tested bacterial cells.
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