Soybean is the one most important oil-producing crop in Nigeria and the world. Genotype by environment interaction has been a major hindrance to effective selection and production. This study was conducted to determine the response of 43 soybean accessions to three environments to identify accessions that are adapted to the specific location and those that have wide adaptation. The 43 accessions were collected from the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria, and tested during the growing seasons of the years 2013, 2014, and 2015 in Ibadan. The data were analyzed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) and genotype main effect plus genotype-byenvironment interaction (GGE) biplot methods. The AMMI analysis showed significant G x E interaction and identified accessions TGm-107, TGm-1200, and TGm-802 as the most desirable genotypes, whereas, TGm-868 and TGm-1209 were the least stable. The first two PC of the GGE analysis were able to capture 88.8% of the total variability due to G x E interaction. Accessions TGm-107, TGm-1200, and TGm-802 were the best performing and stable accessions due to their shortest projections in GGE biplot.
This project comprehensively documented the morphological characteristics of ten black pepper cultivars in Malaysia, focusing on diagnosing the morphological difference among the cultivars via qualitative traits. These cultivars are cv. Semongok Aman, cv. Kuching, cv. Semongok Emas, cv. Semongok Perak, cv. Semongok 1, cv. Nyerigai, cv. India, cv. Lampung Daun Lebar, cv. Sarikei, and cv. Yong Petai. The morphological characteristics had been evaluated via field-grown vine where the randomized complete block design (RCBD) was adopted and potted vine evaluation via completely randomized design (CRD). Cv. Semongok 1 showed ovate shaped leaf and anthocyanin free shoot tip; cv. Semongok Aman had rounded shape of leaf apex and base; cv. Lampung Daun Lebar had an oblique shape in leaf base and Nyerigai showed erect type branching; cv. Semongok Emas had leaf colour of Green group 137 series (RHS code) and fruit colour of Green group 141 series (RHS); cv. India had a lanceolate shaped leaf. At the same time, this study also revealed the key differences in quantitative traits that included leaf area, length-width ratio, inflorescent length, fruit spike length, and fresh to dried berry conversion rate. The study showed that cv. India had a low length-width ratio (Lw-1) at 1.52 and lightest seed weight at 4.07(x 10-2) g; cv. Sarikei had the smallest leaf area (36.90 cm2), shortest inflorescence (6.06 cm), shortest fruit spike (8.07 cm), smallest fruit diameter (5.78 cm), smallest seed diameter (3.84 cm), and thinnest pericarp (1.73 cm); cv. Kuching had the greatest number of inflorescence per branch per node (ca.58.67) and the greatest number of node/ feet of the stem (ca.4.73); cv. Yong Petai had the longest inflorescence (12.75 cm), longest fruit spike (17.07 cm), but thinnest fruit spike (2.90 mm); and, lastly, cv. Semongok Perak had the conversion rate (from fresh to dried black) (36.12 %) and conversion rate (from fresh to dried white) (24.21 %). The comprehensive evaluation of both qualitative and quantitative traits of all the black pepper cultivars has ensured the efficiency of cultivar identification.
Black pepper cultivar, qualitative and quantitative traits
The antifungal potential of chitosan obtained from shellfish was studied in both in vitro and in vivoconditions against Pyricularia oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani, causal agents of the blast and sheath blight diseases in rice, respectively. A total of 100% inhibition of mycelial growth was observed on both P. oryzae and R. solani when a 4% concentration of chitosan was used in this study. A significant reduction in both disease incidence and disease severity was observed between the treated and untreated rice plants. The disease controlling efficacy of chitosan was concentration-dependent with a negative correlation. The disease reduction (DR) capacity of chitosan in this study ranged between 47-95%. Chitosan was able to reduce disease severity (DS) of blast by 85% and sheath blight by 95% while disease incidence (DI) of blast by 77% and sheath blight by 89%. The results demonstrated that chitosan extracted from shellfish has the potential to be developed as a biopesticide for sustainable control of both blast and sheath blight diseases in rice and has broad-spectrum capacity in controlling both diseases.
Spodoptera litura is classified as a plant-disturbing organism. Efforts to control S. litura by using chemical insecticides have a detrimental impact on the environment and the potential to harm non-target organisms. Bioinsecticides provide a safe alternative for reducing the agricultural pest problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the specific amino acid from Mirabilis jalapa extract using high performance-liquid chromatography (HP-LC) analysis and to identify their potency as a biopesticide. Mirabilis jalapa extract in combination with Bacillus thuringiensis influences the weakening of the S. litura immune system to explain the cause of S. litura death. The results showed that the M. jalapa extract had seven sequences of the highest amino acid compounds from M. jalapa, namely: Glu, Asp, Lys, Val, Leu, Arg, and Ala. Alanine compound has the potential as a biopesticide that breaks down the muscle and nervous system and blocks its receptors. The combination of B. thuringiensis in LC50 concentration also caused the death of S. litura. Finally, the combination of 0.2% concentration of M. jalapa and B. thuringiensis at a sublethal concentration (1.07%) applied in 12-hour intervals within 24 hours showed the optimum mortality of S. litura (p<0.05): the death of larvae was characterized by damage to the midgut organs in the digestive tract observed by the histological microanatomy.
Melaleuca cajuputi crude extract in four different solvents viz dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol were evaluated for their insecticidal properties against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito. Bioassay against larva and adult mosquito was done following World Health Organizations guidelines. Late 3rd and/or early 4th instar of Aedes larvae were assayed for different concentrations ranging from 10 to 120 mg/L of M. cajuputi crude extract. Larvicidal effects were observed in dichloromethane, hexane, and methanol. Dichloromethane gave the highest of mean mortality, against Ae. Aegypti (12.6 ± 0.98) and Ae. Albopictus (10.2 ± 0.37) with LC50 of 104.8 mg/L and 106 mg/L, respectively. The adulticidal bioassay was tested against 3 - 5 days old of female mosquitoes with the range concentrations from 0.04 to 6.21 mg/cm2. Amongst solvents used, extracts of dichloromethane and hexane showed effects against the adult mosquito. Extract in hexane gave 100% mortality against both Aedes with LC50 of 0.015 mg/cm2 (Ae. aegypti) and 0.022 mg/cm2 (Ae. albopictus). In conclusion, the extract of M. cajuputi could be exploited in the development of potential plant-based products in controlling dengue Aedes vectors, particularly in the adult mosquito.
Monodominant forests are often dominated by a single tree species at the canopy layer of the forest. At Segari Melintang Forest Reserve, Perak, where Shorea lumutensis dominates the forest, a study was conducted to understand the floristic composition and the soil properties that drove the abundance of S. lumutensis in the study area. To achieve the objectives, all trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) of 5 cm and above and soil samples were collected within eight random subplots of 25 m × 50 m each. A total of 1,207 trees were enumerated, which comprised 117 species, 70 genera, and 35 families. The most speciose family and family with the highest density were Euphorbiaceae (12 species) and Dipterocarpaceae (201 individuals/ha), respectively. The total basal area for all trees in the study plots was 32.63 m2/ha, with Dipterocarpaceae and S. lumutensis showing the highest basal area of 10.64 and 2.9 m2/ha, respectively. For the diversity indices, the Shannon diversity index showed a value of 3.92, whilst the Shannon evenness index was 0.82. The redundancy analysis (RDA) ordination diagram showed that S. lumutensis is associated with magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca). The distribution pattern of tree communities is associated with the soil characteristics of the study site.
Forest dynamic, Shorea lumutensis, tree association
In Malaysian forests, the population dynamics of rattan has not been fully documented. Hence, this study was aimed to investigate the population dynamics pattern of the Calamus castaneus, a non-climbing rattan. The association of growth and phenology cycle to environmental variables on the population dynamics were studied for one year. Three forest reserves were selected as the study sites: Segari Melintang Forest Reserve (SMFR) in Perak, Teluk Bahang Forest Reserve (TBFR), and Bukit Mertajam Forest Eco-Park (BMFEP) in Penang. The fieldwork was conducted from March 2017 until March 2018. With the plot size of 10 m × 10 m (100 m2), five plots were established in each study site. All the C. castaneus individuals inside the plots were marked with numbered plastic tags. A total of 180 individuals were evaluated: TBFR (52 individuals), SMFR (86 individuals), and BMFEP (42 individuals). The findings have revealed that the C. castaneus abundancy is comparatively similar in all sites, as shown by the Kruskal-Wallis test with no significant difference (p > 0.05) between all life stages. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) for all sites has displayed that the rattan growth parameters are closely associated with the microclimate parameters and soil properties. Overall, SMFR showed the fastest growth increment and the largest population size of C. castaneus among all three sites.
Arecaceae, Calamus castaneus, non-climbing rattan, palm, population dynamics
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of age at slaughter and sex on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Betong chickens that were raised under a semi-free-range system. A total of 360 chickens from Takbai, Narathiwat Province, Thailand were arranged into 3x2 factorial design with 3 levels of age at slaughter (16, 20, 24 weeks) and sex (male and female) in CRD. The experiment consisted of 6 treatments with 3 replications. Ten chickens of each replicate from each treatment group were randomly sampled for carcass yield and meat quality. Results showed that slaughter and carcass weights were significantly higher when the age at slaughter increased (P<0.01). Males had heavier slaughter and carcass weights (P<0.001) with lower breast percentage than the female chickens in each particular age. Higher yellowness value was significantly illustrated when the age of chickens increased. This color value was higher in both breast and thigh meat of the female chickens (P<0.05). Considering texture analysis, the males had significantly higher shear force value than the females (P<0.05). This shear value tended to increase when the age of the chicken increased (P>0.05). There was no significant difference observed between age at slaughter on chemical composition (P>0.05). Nevertheless, the males had less fat content in breast meat and higher collagen content in thigh meat than the female Betong chickens (P<0.05). The results show that males should be slaughtered at 20 weeks, while the females should be slaughtered when they reach the age of 24 weeks.
Age at slaughter, Betong chicken, meat quality, sex
In this study, sodium alginate film incorporated with mulberry leaf extract [0-4 % (v/v)] were evaluated in terms of its physicochemical properties. Results showed that with the increase of mulberry leaf extract concentration, the thickness of the film increased (from 0.07 mm to 0.11 mm), while the color of film produced increased in its green and yellow intensity. In terms of mechanical properties, with the increase of mulberry leaf extract concentration, a significant increase in the tensile strength but a significant decrease in the elongation at break of the film were observed, while no significant effect (p>0.05) on the puncture force was observed. Similarly, no significant effect (p>0.05) on moisture content, water solubility, and water activity of sodium alginate films were found, with the increase of mulberry leaf extract. An increase in the total phenolic content from 8.92 mg GAE/100 g to 41.88 mg GAE/100 g was observed when 4 % (v/v) of mulberry leaf extract was added.
Mulberry leaf extract, physicochemical properties, sodium alginate, total phenolic content
Renanthera bella J. J. Wood is an endemic orchid to Sabah with beautiful bright red petals. Most of the floral development of orchids is significantly affected by seasons and geographical factors. To date, the flower development stages of R. bella have never been studied. This study was conducted to observe the morphological changes of flower initiation and early development by apical dissection and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The floral organs were dissected and fixed in 1.5% glutaraldehyde and dehydrated with alcohol. Characteristic stages of the initial flowering pattern were recorded until the flower was fully open and become senescent. Renanthera bella showed a typical acropetal pattern starting with early flowering from the base to the apex, forming a raceme-type inflorescence. Its flower development was divided into ten stages, which started with the flower bud appearance and the initiation of primordia. Next, the flower sepal started to develop within seven days of bud appearance. The final stage occurred after 25 days of observation when the bud opened, with an average bud length and diameter of 1.94 ± 0.56 cm and 0.50 ± 0.29 cm, respectively. The R. bella flower maturity stage was achieved between 38 to 40 days after anthesis, with the average length and diameter of petals and sepals increasing to 2.49 ± 0.23 cm and 0.38 ± 0.06 cm, respectively. A capsule successfully formed after one week of pollination. It reached the maturity stage at approximately 15 weeks after pollination. The orchid capsule started to break and expose the seeds inside after 21 weeks. This analysis emphasized the early floral development pattern, which could help estimate the length of flower maturity and pollination.
Despite progressive reports on pharmacological properties in Gynura procumbens, many are overlooking the importance of agronomic requirements for high yields and phytochemical content that vary due to environmental variations. The study was carried out to examine the effects of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), and evapotranspiration replacement (ER) on growth and phytochemical content. Treatments affected parameters significantly (p≤0.05) with a stronger effect on physiological and biochemical attributes (p≤0.0001). Highest and lowest yield of biomass and phytochemical content were observed under N0K30(70) and N90K0(25), respectively. Treatments interaction was highly significant (p≤0.0001) in Cond, TPrC, and TFC, (p≤0.05) in CF and PWP, and not significant (p>0.05) in Photo, TCC, and TPC. The 75% ER had significant (p≤0.05) output of biomass and phytochemical content. As ER decreased from 100 to 25%, the Photo and CF were reduced. Phytochemical content displayed a significant negative relationship with PWP. Caffeic acid, kaempferol, and ferulic acid demonstrated as lead compounds. Following this, there were correlations between phenolic biosynthesis-regulated gene and gene expressions such as PAL, CHS, and F3H primers.
The decrease in groundwater level (GWL) on peatlands, especially in the dry season, can lead to extensive peat drying and making it more vulnerable to the occurrence of wildfire. This research aimed to study the relationship between GWL fluctuations and water content on the surface of peatlands. The study was carried out in a 14 to 17 years old palm oil plantation and a secondary forest located in Siak, Riau Province, Indonesia. Field observations were carried out by installing a water level data logger and soil moisture sensor at a depth of 10 cm and 30 cm from the peat surface, recorded at an hour interval for one year. The results showed that GWL fluctuation was highly correlated to the peat water content in the 10 cm layer both in oil palm plantation (R2 = 0.65) and secondary forest (R2 = 0.67). The peat water content in the 30 cm layer showed a low correlation with GWL fluctuation down to -90 cm in oil palm plantation (R2 = 0.01), however, it was strongly correlated in secondary forests (R2 = 0.89). Water capillarity in peat soils was able to increase to up to 10 - 30 cm layers from the surface, ranging from 284 to 476% w/w. The capillary water could rise to 68 to 76 cm. The result of the General Linear Model analysis showed that there was a significant influence of land cover, GWL, and peat bulk density on soil water content. Oil palm cultivation activities on peatlands increase the peat bulk density, which in turn increases water capillarity and soil water content.