Universiti Putra Malaysia
Download Latest Complete Journal - JTAS Vol. 42 (2) May. 2019
Foreword by the Chief Executive Editor
No.ArticlesDownloads
1
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(Downloads: 107)
Abstract (Viewed: 20)Good agronomic practice is a key to a successful crop production aiming at high yield and quality in small or large scale planting. Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. (Family Asteraceae) is a herbal plant rich in phytochemical compounds of wellbeing benefits to the consumers. Suitable and complete technology on agronomic practices such as cultivation technique, fertilization application, water requirement, weed control and pest and disease management of G. procumbens or locally known as Sambung Nyawa for the Malaysian environment can ensure quality product and high yield. This may attract local producers and smallholders to cultivate this medicinal plant commercially. Complete technology package documented for commercial planting of G. procumbens may encourage its planting which would ensure the sustainable supply of G. procumbens raw materials for the pharmaceutical and health industries. Suitable agronomic practices adopted contribute to sustainable commercial production of G. procumbens. It endeavours to support the country's Entry Point Project under The Agriculture National Key Economic Area (NKEA) to become a potential hub for the manufacturing of high-value G. procumbens based herbal products as well as other herbal species. Therefore, it is crucial to develop and to adopt the necessary agronomic practices for the commercial cultivation for this medicinal herb to support the demand for the industry while directly increase farmers' farm profit.Agronomic practices, bioactive compound, cultivation, Gynura procumbens, medicinal plant
2
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(Downloads: 45)
Abstract (Viewed: 13)The sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) is one of the underutilized food crops that has the promising potential to strengthen food security program especially in Sarawak, Malaysia. Thriving well in harsh environments such as the freshwater swampy area, the sago palm is also unique for its ability to store starch within its trunk, compared to other types of starch storage organs. With its superb high starch yield as compared to commonly found starch sources such as the corn, rice and wheat, it is deemed as the palm of many uses. Researches sprouting from this unique palm come from various fields of study, namely microbiology, food technology, polymer synthesis, bioprocess technology and most recently, computational biology. In this review, we presented a survey of recently published results from each field and further provided future recommendations and knowledge gaps to be filled. It is hoped that with the consolidation of research talents and funding from around the world, the sago palm industry will be matured in time to equip mankind with the solutions to combat the oncoming global food scarcity issues.Food crop, food security, industry, starch yield, underutilized
3
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(Downloads: 50)
Abstract (Viewed: 10)Proper application of nitrogen fertilizer is vital to improve crop growth and development. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the need based nitrogen management using leaf color chart (LCC) on crop growth and yield of dry direct seeded rice (DDSR) with five nitrogen management practices {0 kg N ha-1, 120 kg N ha-1 in three equal split applications, 30 kg N ha-1 as basal + 30 kg N ha-1 top dressing based on LCC critical value four, 30 kg N ha-1 top dressing (without basal N dose) at 15 days after sowing (DAS) + LCC based N application and pure LCC (without basal N dose) based N application} tested on three rice varieties (Radha-4, US-312 and Sukhkhadhan-5) in split plot design. The results revealed that the highest grain yield was observed in hybrid US-312 (4,695 kg ha-1) with higher plant height, leaf area index (LAI) and dry matter production than the inbred varieties i.e. Radha-4 and Sukhkhadhan-5. All the nitrogen management treatments including LCC were similar to each other in respect of grain yield formation (4,695-4,891 kg ha-1), but remained significantly superior over three split applications (4,408 kg ha-1). Likewise, values of growth parameters were higher in LCC based treatments than the recommended practice and grain yield being the highest in pure LCC (4,891 kg ha-1). Thus, pure LCC based nitrogen management found to be the best practice for both inbred and hybrid rice varieties.Crop growth, direct seeded rice, leaf color chart, yield
4
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(Downloads: 38)
Abstract (Viewed: 8)Phosphorus (P) is one of the essential nutrients needed by plants in large amount. However, response of fruit crops to phosphorus application may vary depending on soil and climatic conditions of the area. Hence, this study was conceptualized to evaluate the growth, yield and fruit quality of 'MD-2' pineapple in response to varying rates of P under Adtuyon clay soil in Bukidnon, Philippines. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five amounts (0, 84, 127, 169 and 211 kg ha-1, respectively) of P as treatments with three replications. Results revealed that 'MD-2' pineapple growth was significantly influenced by P application. However, highest dose (211 kg ha-1) of P in Adtuyon clay soil did not provoked significant P uptake of 'MD-2' pineapple. Instead, P uptake declined beyond 169 kg P ha-1 application. Zn uptake of pineapple declined also as P applied in soil was beyond 169 kg P ha-1. Unpredictably, 'MD-2' pineapple plants starved with P still produced fruits (mean fruit mass of 1.28 kg) with a yield of 76.80 tons ha-1, however it could not be denied that higher doses of P (≥169 kg ha-1) improved the fruit mass (≥1.42 kg) as well as yield (≥96.92 tons ha-1) of 'MD-2' pineapple. Fruit physico-chemical properties of 'MD-2' pineapple was not dependent on the amount of P applied in the soil. In general, 169 kg P ha-1 was found as the optimal amount of P for 'MD-2' pineapple production in Adtuyon clay soil.Adtuyon clay, Ananas comosus, 'MD-2' pineapple, phosphorus, pineapple nutrition
5
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(Downloads: 27)
Abstract (Viewed: 4)A field study was conducted in a sugarcane field in the southern Guinea savanna ecology of Nigeria to document the influence of weed management methods on the pattern of weed seedlings emergence and cane yield of sugarcane across 3 crop cycles. The experiment which had 6 weed management strategies (weedy check; pre- terbutylazine at 2.0 kg a.i/ ha + supplementary hand hoeing (SHH) at 4, 10 and 16 weeks after planting (WAP); post-ametryn at 3.0 kg a.i/ha + SHH at 10 & 16 WAP; post-dicamba at 0.5 kg a.i/ha + SHH at 10 and 16 WAP; pre-terbutylazine at 2.0 kg a.i/ha + post- 2, 4-D at 3.0 kg a.i/ ha; and monthly hand hoeing) was laid out in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times during 2014, 2015 and 2016 growing seasons. Weed seedlings emergence was monitored in 0.5m2 quadrats continuously at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 months after planting (MAP). The result shows that, the weed spectrum comprised 57-62% grasses, 23-29% broadleaves and 13% were sedges. Dactyloctenium aegyptium had 12.05% relative abundance, Digitaria horizontalis (10.84%), Cynodon dactylon (8.0%), and Tephrosia linearis (8.80%) Eclipta alba (7.50%), Echinochloa obstusiflora (7.17) were the top dominant weed species identified in plant and ratoon crops, respectively. Weed seedling emergence peaks occurred at 1 and 4 MAP across weed control options and crop cycles. Pre-terbutylazine at 2.0 kg a.i/ha + post 2, 4-D at 3.0 kg a.i/ ha was adjourned to minimized weeds emergence which translated into higher cane yields across crop cycles. This study concludes that pre-emergence application of terbutylazine at 2.0 kg a.i/ha + post-emergence of 2,4-D at 3.0 kg a.i/ ha prior to peak periods of weed emergence is the most stable and ideal weed management option for sugarcane estates in the southern Guinea savanna ecology of Nigeria.2, 4-D, biplot analysis, cane yield, dicamba, ratoon crops, sugarcane, terbutylazine, weed emergence
6
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(Downloads: 26)
Abstract (Viewed: 6)Fermentation by the solid state fermentation (SSF) technique is an alternative method that may increase bioactive compounds and their functionality due to enzymatic activities. This study evaluated the effect of the fermentation time of black rice bran on the bioactive compound profile and the antioxidant and anti-α-amylase activities of the compounds. Fermentation was performed by using Rhizopus oligosporus (R. oligosporus) for 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Fermented rice bran samples were collected every 24 h. The results showed that the bioactive compounds in black rice bran significantly increased (p < 0.05) during fermentation. Further significant increases were found for DPPH free radical scavenging activity (76.91 ± 0.06%) and α-amylase inhibition (73.05 ± 0.25%) in fermented (96 h) black rice bran compared to those in non-fermented bran (0 h). It was confirmed that fermentation had a significant effect on increasing the amount and activity of bioactive compounds in black rice bran.Anti α-amylase, antioxidant, bioactive compound, fermented bran, Rhizopus oligosporus
7
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(Downloads: 22)
Abstract (Viewed: 6)Cookies are convenient food for people of all ages. Consumers' interest for gluten free cookies is increasing recently due to awareness on gluten allergy. This study evaluated the functional properties and antioxidant activities of germinated brown rice flour (GBRF) and non-germinated brown rice flour (NGBRF), and GBRF-potato starch blend (3:1), and NGBRF-potato starch blend (3:1). Storage stability and sensory acceptance of cookies produced from the various flour samples were also evaluated. The flours had significantly different values in most of the functional properties. However, the Housner's ratio (1.18- 1.35), Carr index (14.94-25.67) and water absorption index (1.88-2.14 g/g) of the flours were not significantly different. GBRF and germinated brown rice flour cookies (GBRFC) had the highest antioxidant activities with DPPH values of 40.61 µM TE/g and 37.67 µM TE/g, respectively, and FRAP values of 39.84 µM TE/g and 38.29 µM TE/g, respectively. The GBRFC had higher total phenolic content (152.30 mg GAE/100g) than cookies from GBRF-starch blend (107.37 mg GAE/100 g). Sensory evaluation results showed that all the cookies were similarly rated for aroma, texture, mouth feel, crispiness and overall acceptance. However, cookies prepared from wheat flour, and germinated brown rice-potato starch (GBRPS) had the highest sensory scores for overall acceptance. The hardness of cookies produced from GBRPS was similar to that of the freshly produced cookies after 7 days of storage at room temperature.Antioxidant activities, brown rice cookies, functional properties, germinated brown rice flour, pasting properties, storage stability
8
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(Downloads: 20)
Abstract (Viewed: 4)Dietary fibre enriched food is gaining more popularity due to their numerous health benefits. In this study, papaya peel powder was prepared as a source of dietary fibre to be fortified in yogurt at different concentrations (1.5 and 3.0 % w/w). Papaya peel was dried at three different temperatures (45, 55 and 65°C) and the results showed that drying at temperature of 55 and 65°C was able to retain higher total dietary fibre content of 40.21 and 48.00 g/100 g, respectively, and was used for enrichment in yogurt. The quality characteristics in terms of viscosity, pH and colour (L*, a*, b*, chroma, hue angle and total colour difference) of stirred yogurt added with papaya peel powder stored at 4°C was investigated weekly up to 21 days. Sensory evaluation (9-point hedonic scale) was also conducted for the yogurt samples prepared. Results showed the viscosity of yogurt was higher when the amount of papaya peel powder added was increased. It also showed an increasing trend during 21 days of storage. The pH values of the samples prepared had no significant difference (P > 0.05) as the concentration of powder was raised. However, a notable reduction in pH was observed after storage. Colour parameters were also significantly affected (P < 0.05) by the addition of powder, with fortified samples exhibiting darker (lower L* value) and more yellowish (higher b* value) colour than the control sample. Nonetheless, the parameters remained unchanged during storage of 21 days. Sensory results revealed that the stirred yogurt with 1.5% concentration of papaya peel powder dried at 55°C received the highest sensory scores among other samples.Papaya peel, quality characteristics, sensory analysis, stirred yogurt, storage analysis
9
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(Downloads: 21)
Abstract (Viewed: 5)The effect of storage time on ascorbic acid content (AAC), total phenolic content (TPC) and colour of blanched, boiled and steamed cauliflowers (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. botrytis) was investigated. Blanching and steaming retained more AAC in cauliflower as compared to boiling. Storage time showed no significant changes in AAC measured at 30 min interval up to 2.5 h in all samples with the expection of boiled sample at 2.5 h in which significant reduction was observed. Blanching resulted in a higher TPC in cauliflower as compared to boiling or steaming. There were no significant differences between the TPC of boiled and steamed cauliflowers. Storage time showed no significant changes in TPC measured at 30 min interval up to 2.5 h in all samples. As for the colour measurement, there were significant reduction in the L*, a* and b* values of the blanched, boiled and steamed cauliflowers as compared to raw cauliflower but there were no significant changes in these colour values measured at 30 min interval up to 2.5 h. This study demonstrated that blanched, boiled or steamed cauliflower can be stored up to 2 h with no significant changes in the AAC, TPC, L*, a* and b* colour values.Blanching, boiling, cooking, room temperature storage, steaming, thermal processing, vitamin C
10
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(Downloads: 14)
Abstract (Viewed: 4)Folin Ciocalteu (FC) assay had been widely used in the estimation of total phenolics content (TPC) in foods. However, the main disadvantage of this assay is that the reagent reacts with reducing substances and measures the total reducing capacity of a sample, not just phenolic compounds. The Fast Blue BB (FBBB) assay is another assay that can be used to estimate the total phenolic content in foods instead. The aim of the study was to estimate and compare the total phenolic content of green tea and commercial fruit juices using FC and FBBB assays, and also the effects of glucose and ascorbic acid on both assays. Green tea had the highest ascorbic acid content and TPC value among the samples. TPC estimated using FC assay were significantly higher than FBBB assay in all the samples. FC and FBBB assays were not affected by glucose at different concentrations. However, FC assay was significantly affected by the presence of ascorbic acid compared to FBBB assay. In conclusion, FC assay overestimated the TPC value in the sample extracts and was significantly affected by the presence of ascorbic acid. The FBBB assay can be considered as an alternative for estimation of total phenolic content in ascorbic acid-rich foods.Ascorbic acid, Fast Blue BB assay, Folin Ciocalteu assay, green tea, total phenolic content
11
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(Downloads: 23)
Abstract (Viewed: 7)Livestock plays a great role in the economic development of smallholder farmers. However, the population of livestock has been affected by diseases such as cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis. Sariaya has a large production of livestock that is being distributed in Quezon Province. Thus, the current study aimed to identify the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. in livestock in selected farms of Sariaya, Quezon. Risk factors were also assessed in the present study. A total of 103 collected faecal samples from livestock were subjected to microscopic and molecular detection. Faecal samples were processed through Formalin-Ether Concentration Technique (FECT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction. Microscopy results revealed that 14 out of 103 (13.59%) samples were positive for Giardia with meant intensity of 13 cysts per gram (cpg) of faeces, while molecular detection confirmed that 13 out of 103 (12.62%) had amplified for the target gene of Giardia, tpi, with expected band size of 530 bp. Sequenced samples of G. intestinalis were characterised as assemblages A, B and E. Moreover, pigs showed the highest prevalence (15.91%), while cattle had the highest mean intensity (14 cpg) for Giardia. Cryptosporidium were absent in all the samples. Statistical analysis of the risk factors such as diet, feeding floor, habit, presence of illness and faecal consistency of the animals revealed no significant association (p>0.05) in the presence of Giardia. This study revealed the presence of zoonotic Giardia species in the area; however, future investigation in other possible risk factors such as the season and age is still recommended.Cryptosporidium, Giardia, livestock animals, zoonosis
12
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(Downloads: 18)
Abstract (Viewed: 3)Five Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) were isolated from imported birds at an animal quarantine station in Malaysia from 2012 to 2017. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the fusion (F) protein cleavage site showed that all the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates were virulent with the 112RRQ/KKRF117 motif. Phylogenetic analysis of the F gene revealed that four isolates were grouped in genotype VIa while one was in genotype VIIi. Among the four VIa viruses, three were clustered together with the Belgium strain and one with the United States strain. Meanwhile, the VIIi virus was highly similar to the Pakistan strain. VIa viruses in Malaysia were mostly detected from imported avian and there are no currently reported outbreaks caused by this virus. Whereas NDV VIIi viruses caused outbreaks in poultry in Malaysia in 2011 to 2012. There were only slight differences between the F gene of the imported and local existing VIIi viruses. This study revealed the isolation of different genotypes of virulent NDV of different origin from imported birds. As captive birds can transmit NDV across international boundaries and viral transmission between birds and poultry may lead to outbreaks, hence, screening imported birds for diseases is the most crucial step in preventing the spread of this disease. NDV can cause significant economic losses to the poultry industries worldwide. With the increase in international trade of birds and poultry, strict quarantine systems and good laboratory diagnostic capabilities that can characterize and differentiate imported viral strains from existing circulating strains in the country are important in attempts to prevent the entry of foreign viral NDV strains.Genotype VI, genotype VII, imported birds, Newcastle disease
13
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(Downloads: 20)
Abstract (Viewed: 4)Rise in antibiotic resistance among clinical and environmental isolates in Nigeria is becoming worrisome. The unprofessional sales and consumption of veterinary antibiotics together with lack of adequate sanitation and hygiene during slaughtering, processing and consumption of cattle and poultry products in Abraka, Delta State of Nigeria, could spread antibiotic resistant bacteria to the surrounding environments. A study was therefore conducted to isolate Escherichia coli from 200 poultry litters and 200 cattle feaces and screen them for beta-lactamases. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 412 E. coli strains isolated from 400 samples of fresh and dry faeces of cattle and poultry and 25 samples each of rectal and cloacae swabs were carried out. All the strains were screened phenotypically for extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), carbapenemase and metallo beta-lactamase (MBL). Results showed a high incidence of resistance to all the antibiotics except meropenem. Resistance to nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim reached 80-90%, while resistance to other beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones ranges from 40-60%, and over 50% of them exhibited multidrug resistance. Strains of E. coli from poultry droppings are more resistant to antibiotics than their counterparts from cow dungs. ESBL, carbapenemase and MBL production was detected in 10.5, 5.26 and 7.89% of isolates from cow dungs and 27.2, 10.2 and 6.81% isolates from poultry droppings. High level of antibiotic resistance and incidence of ESBL, carbapenemase, and MBL have public health implication as poor sanitation, poor water supply and lack of personal hygiene among the handlers, processors and consumers are very high in the locality.Antibiotic, carbapenemase, cow, ESBL, faeces, poultry, resistance
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(Downloads: 19)
Abstract (Viewed: 6)Colostrum could provide significant fatty acids (FAs) essential for the development of living organisms. Yet to date, only a few works was performed to evaluate the composition of this important resource. In order to enrich data availability on the first milk, the objective of this work was to study bovine colostrum by comparing its composition in FAs with that of cow's mature milk. In this study, colostrum was sampled in warm season during the first day of postpartum from imported Prim'Holstein cows, and comparing it with mixed milk produced from a dairy-farm located in Tipaza region, northern Algeria. The proportion of saturated short-chain fatty acids was higher in mature milk than in colostrum (P<0.05). Medium and long chain saturated fatty acids present greater contents (P<0.01) in colostrum, with predominance (P<0.01) of myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids. Among monounsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1 n-9) revealed more elevated proportions (P<0.05) in milk. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were more marked (P<0.01) in colostrum, with high linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) levels, while α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) contents were weaker. The n-6/n-3 ratio as well as the atherogenicity index (AI) values confirmed that both were to the advantage of bovine colostrum. Even though the AI is significantly higher in colostrum, the value (1.89±0.01) obtained nevertheless remains lower than those previously reported.Bovine colostrum, fatty acids, lactation, mammary secretion, postpartum
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(Downloads: 18)
Abstract (Viewed: 6)Melioidosis is a disease that infects humans and animals, and can be detrimental in humans. Mortality rate from melioidosis septic shock due to infection from Gram negative Burkholderia pseudomallei (B. pseudomallei) in endemic regions of Malaysia and Thailand remains high despite available antimicrobial therapy. Multiple strategies are employed to identify essential genes and drug targets in this bacterium to improve current antimicrobial therapies. This is important as B. pseudomallei is intrinsically resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. In this study, hypothetical genes predicted to be essential for B. pseudomallei by transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) technique were selected. One target gene, BPSL2774, has been successfully amplified and cloned from genomic DNA of B. pseudomallei strain K96243. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) affinity tag chromatography was performed for partial protein purification. The target protein was successfully expressed in soluble form with satisfactory yield output. Mass spectrometry analysis of 60 kDa Coomassie-stained gel band confirmed the presence of the soluble expressed tagged-target protein, co-purified with Escherichia coli chaperonin proteins, possibly due to their interaction with the target protein. BPSL2774 protein have considerable homology to glycosyltransferase GTB type superfamily and RfaB superfamily. On the basis of this similarity, the three-dimensional structure of BPSL2774 has been modelled and assessed by protein model quality servers. Taking all the results into account, the functional annotation of BPSL2774 protein as a glycosyltransferase is recommended, though future validation from biochemical experiments will be needed to support this.Burkholderia pseudomallei, BPSL2774 hypothetical protein, glycosyltransferase
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(Downloads: 19)
Abstract (Viewed: 6)Enhancers are indispensable DNA elements responsible for elevation of gene transcriptional efficiency that regulates biological processes tightly at various developmental stages, linking them to numerous genetic diseases. Discovering the enhancer landscape of the genome will not only benefit mankind, but also aid in conservation researches involving endangered non-human primates such as the proboscis monkey. As one of the most ancient colobine endemic to Borneo Island, the proboscis monkey offers a wide spectrum of unique and exclusive characteristics that distinguish it from other primates. This study has successfully isolated 13 liver-specific enhancers from this primate and tested for their activities in HepG2 and A549 cell line. The TFBS-enriched regions such as pairs of AP-1, clusters of C/EBP-β and triplets of HNF-1 in enhancers contributed to enhancer activities whereas huge clusters of HNF-3β possess suppressing effects, but generally these regions contributed to the cell specificities of enhancers. It is hoped that this study serves as a stepping stone in knowledge enrichment on this primate and future conservation researches.Computational approach, conservation, enhancer, liver, proboscis monkey
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(Downloads: 17)
Abstract (Viewed: 6)Toll-like receptor 5 is involved in innate immune responses that are initiated by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize molecular structures of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by microorganisms especially bacteria. In this study, we sequenced 2577 bp bovine TLR5 in N'Dama cattle and discovered four synonymous mutations with one (C2127T) being shared between the N'Dama and the wild cattle. Sequences of other bovine species including Bos taurus, Bos indicus and Bos javanicus from public domain revealed higher number of non-synonymous mutations 19, 7 and 6 in wild cattle, Bos indicus subspecies and the Bos taurus respectively with a higher ratio of total number of non-synonymous mutations to that of synonymous mutations suggesting that the gene is evolving under adaptive evolution. The results of genetic diversity revealed a combination of high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity which is an evidence of past and rapid demographic expansion from a small effective population size. Haplotype reconstructions, median-joining networks and phylogenetic analysis revealed haplotype sharing among Bos taurus, Bos indicus and their hybrid suggesting retention of conserved ancestral variation that predates subspecies divergence in this immune gene. There is no haplotype sharing between the wild and the domestic cattle, but a close relationship of the wild cattle clade with one of the N'Dama cluster suggesting little exchange of genetic material between these two groups of cattle. This results will facilitate effort towards understanding the relationship between mutations in different bovine species and their involvement in differential susceptibility and or tolerance to various diseases.Bovine phylogeny, genetic diversity, network analysis, Toll-like receptor 5
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(Downloads: 17)
Abstract (Viewed: 5)"Mahkota Dewa" fruit (Phaleria macrocarpa [Scheff.] Boerl.), is a traditional Indonesian plant-based remedy that has been used traditionally for generations in treating multiple illness and diseases. This investigation intends to assess the fecundity effects of P. macrocarpa supplementation in adult male rats through hormonal, physical and histological changes. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly distributed into two by five experimental design with two supplementation periods (3 and 7 weeks) allotted to 5 different doses of extract (0, 24, 48, 240 mg PM aqueous extract/ kg bw and 80 mg of commercial PM product/ kg bw). The mean sperm count (455 cells/ml), body weight (301 g), histological assessment of spermatogonia cells (87 cells), and thickness of seminiferous tubule layer (79 µm) significantly increased (P < 0.05) in rats treated with 240 mg/ kg dose. However, there were no changes in both physical appearances of testes (size and volume) and testosterone hormone levels among the treatment groups. Our findings indicated that supplementation of P. macrocarpa significantly increased the fecundity of rats and the effect was dose and time-dependent. The study suggested that P. macrocarpa offered an attractive and alternative potential for improving the fertility in men.Fertility, herbal remedy, male, Phaleria macrocarpa, spermatogenesis, testosterone
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(Downloads: 25)
Abstract (Viewed: 4)Rise in human population and financial growth complicated the solid waste disposal worldwide and increase the possibilities of dispersion of diseases. This issue can only be solved through fusion of eco-friendly efficient techniques. In the present study, the efficacy of Eudrilus eugeniae has been tested for the food, medical and paper waste decomposition. During vermicomposting, Eudrilus eugeniae development was recorded with significant increase in length, weight, cocoon production, and adult individuals in final compost. Results of 60 days study suggested positive impact of vermicomposting on waste decomposition. Vermicompost of food waste (VFW) resulted with organic carbon 21.67%, 1.98% nitrogen content, and phosphate 0.59 mg/ml. Vermicompost of medical waste (VMW) analysis resulted with organic carbon 15.3%, 1.17% nitrogen, and 0.54 mg/ml phosphate. Whereas physico-chemical results of vermicompost of paper waste (VPW) showed 18.67% organic carbon, 1.39% nitrogen, and 0.79 mg/ml phosphate. The nutritional values of produced vermicompost from different solid wastes were estimated. The VFW resulted with increased nutrient contents than the VMW and VPW. Therefore, decompositing of waste materials by earthworms is the preeminent concept of nutrient renewal from green waste.Cocoon, Eudrilus eugeniae, juvenile, medical waste, solid waste management, vermibed
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(Downloads: 17)
Abstract (Viewed: 4)Boesenbergia rotunda or locally known as 'Temu kunci' is renowned to possess some important bioactive compounds that are promising for pharmacological applications. It is essential to obtain structural information of the inner parts of the in vitro roots since growing these roots undertake various anatomical and morphological changes that influence their cells activities and nutrient uptake processes. Although root functions are thought to be significant for the growth of shoot, the morphological and anatomical knowledge of adventitious root for this plant are limited. This particular study aims to investigate and compare anatomical structures of in vitro adventitious root derived from in vitro plantlet with root derived from shoot bud of B. rotunda. Histological sections using resin were done to study the anatomical of adventitious root of B. rotunda. The root samples were fixed in a Glutaraldehyde-Paraformaldehyde-Caffeine (GPC) fixative, dehydrated, infiltrated, embedded, cut, stained and mounted with Surgipath mounting medium for observations under light microscope. From the histological observations, adventitious roots of B. rotunda had shown the presence of all the three main tissue systems and had the same internal structures containing epidermis, exodermis, suberized sclerenchyma cells, cortex and stele. Both adventitious roots derived from in vitro plantlet and shoot bud showed normal growth morphologically, had anatomically same normal cell structures and arrangements.Adventitious root, Boesenbergia rotunda, histological, in vitro, plantlet, shoot bud
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(Downloads: 18)
Abstract (Viewed: 4)Cross-contamination of meat products with the surrounding contact surfaces does occur during slaughtering procedures. This study aimed to assess the microbial contamination level of meat contact surfaces at the selected local abattoirs. Swab samples of knives, splitting tools and air curtains were collected from two sites in Selangor. The presence of selected indicator and pathogenic microorganisms (total Aerobic Plate Count [APC], Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli [E. coli] and Salmonella spp.) were determined using the plate count method. The isolates obtained were then tested in terms of the biofilm formation ability using the microtiter plate crystal violet assay. Overall results showed that the average total APC for all contact surfaces was 4.77±1.14 log CFU/cm2 (mean±sd). Enterobacteriaceae was found on 75% of the samples at 3.31±1.14 log CFU/cm2. E. coli was only detected on 11.36% of the total contact surfaces at 2.91±1.00 log CFU/ cm2 whereas 25% of the total samples were positive with Salmonella spp. Splitting tools were identified as the most contaminated meat contact surface. Variations in biofilm formation ability were observed between isolates although most of them formed weakly adherent biofilms, especially at 4°C. The study findings help to enhance the systems used in the local abattoirs to ensure safe and top quality meat production.Abattoirs, beef, biofilm formation, meat contact surface, meat contamination
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(Downloads: 18)
Abstract (Viewed: 4)Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens isolated from clinical specimens in many hospitals worldwide. The objectives of the present study was to determine the trends of the S. aureus isolated from clinical specimens and to detect the virulence genes of S. aureus namely mecA, LukS, can, icaA, SdrE and hlg. Data of S. aureus isolation in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) from 2002-2014 which is available in our WHONET system was analyzed. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were randomly collected from the archived culture and the virulence genes were detected by PCR. A total of 15176 S. aureus were isolated and reduction in the MRSA was observed during the study. This study showed that S. aureus infection is still an unresolved issue, where clinical specimen from swab contributes the highest number. The percentage of MRSA also is fluctuating and serves as a good indicator for a more vigilant infection control activity in the hospital setting.Malaysia, MRSA, trends, virulence genes
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(Downloads: 25)
Abstract (Viewed: 5)Belian tree (Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm. & Binn.) is one of the highly demanded commercial timber tree indigenous to the Southeast Asian region. The tree is threatened with over exploitation; habitat destruction and slow regeneration. While vascular plants are known as major reservoirs of fungi species, there have been no studies to identify the microfungi isolated from fruits of this endemic tree. By using internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequence analysis, five genera were isolated and identified as Annulohypoxylon, Daldinia, Hypoxylon, Lasiodiplodia and Trichoderma. This result will be primarily used as baseline data for further investigations on microfungi diversity associated with Belian tree.Annulohypoxylon, Borneo ironwood, Daldinia, Eusideroxylon zwageri, Hypoxylon, Lauraceae, Lasiodiplodia, Trichoderma
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Abstract (Viewed: 5)The future of Indonesian food and energy security is challenged by the limited availability of productive land due to the land conversion issue and, in particular, the leveling-off of rice soil productivity. Acid soils as major contributor to marginal soils occupy approximately 55% of the total terrestrial land in Indonesia. To support the Indonesian policy on food and energy security, acid dryland soil areas have targeted for agricultural land expansion. However, managing such soils for crop productivity with conventional amendments, such as lime was challenged by the availability of lime, its cost and the adverse effects of over-liming. Recent research findings indicate that biochar, with its liming capacity and other beneficial effects, could serve as an amendment to acid soils. A question then can be asked: can biochar be a potential solution for the multiple constraints of Indonesian acid soil? The objectives of this review are to explore the potential of biochar as an amendment to Indonesian acid dryland soils and to develop a research framework for future studies involving biochar so as to support the future of Indonesian food and energy security. Articles and conference papers were selected, studied and critically reviewed. Specific problems with Indonesian acid dryland soils and the utilization of biochar as a potential amendment to the suboptimal soil in Indonesia were investigated. Biochar is alkaline in nature and recent research findings strongly indicate that with its liming effect, water and nutrient retention capability, highly recalcitrant nature, and carbon sequestration capacity could be a potential solution for improving upland acid soil productivity. This could be supported by the huge and sustainable production of feedstock in Indonesia.Ameliorant, liming value, pyrogenic carbon, soil acidity, sustainable agriculture
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Abstract (Viewed: 5)Earthworms are widely recognized as a means of enhancing soil quality. However, less is known about their role in aggregate formation, especially their interaction with organic materials and soil aggregate size, as well as the output of this process. The objectives of this research are to assess the process and characterization of aggregate formation on degraded inceptisols by earthworms. Experiments were conducted in a random block design with factorial pattern using a combination of soil aggregate size, presence and absence of earthworms, presence and absence of compost. Sixteen treatments and 6 replication were used. A total of 96 pots were prepared, and 32 pots were examined every month during three months. The changes of mmorphological and elemental composition were observed using a scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Aggregate stability was measured using the water aggregate stability method. The results showed that micro- and macro-aggregates were formed in less than two months, the aggregate surface became coarser and more porous. The interaction of aggregate size, earthworms and compost could improve degraded inceptisol quality through aggregate stabilization. This process started after the first month and increased after the second month. During the third month, 76.61% stable aggregates (without compost), 80.56% (without earthworms) and 91.74% (with both earthworms and compost) were formed. This finding suggests that stable aggregates are influenced more by a combination of earthworm and compost, however aggregates formation is strongly influenced by earthworm which is faster than compost.Aggregate morphology, aggregate size, compost, interaction, stable aggregate
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Abstract (Viewed: 5)This study was conducted to investigate the effect of liming and fertilizer application on mineralization of nitrogen in hemic and sapric peat material of Tropical Histosols. The peat materials were left to decompose aerobically for 8 weeks under laboratory incubation and samples were taken for extractable ammonium at every 1 week interval. The trends in nitrogen mineralization were found to be similar between hemic and sapric peat materials for all treatments; however the rate and amount of ammonium release differed. The application of lime increased the pH of the peat material from around 3.7 to a pH of about 6.0 but no significant differences were found in the amount of NH4+ at 8 weeks of incubation between treatments with and without liming material in hemic and sapric peat material respectively. Fertilizer application significantly increased NH4+ in both peat materials, where NH4+ in hemic material was significantly higher (23.85 g/kg) compared to sapric (16.48 g/kg) peat material. This study showed that the practice of liming to increase soil pH did not necessarily improve the mineralization of nitrogen in Hemic and Sapric peat therefore was not prerequisite unless the crops to be planted are intolerant to acidity.Ammonium, hemic, incubation, nitrogen mineralization, peat, sapric
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Abstract (Viewed: 5)Physical pre-treatment of the oil palm frond (OPF) is known to loosen the lignocellulose while the biological pre-treatment is capable in degrading the lignin, making the substrates more accessible for rumen microbes. This study aimed at assessing the efficacy of physical, biological and combination of both pre-treatments of OPF on the in vitro ruminal degradability. Five different samples of OPF pre-treatments were used in this study; OPF was subjected to the physical pre-treatment (POPF), OPF to the biological pre-treatments using an enzyme extract of each Ganoderma lucidum (BGL) and Lentinula edodes (BLE), respectively. Another two samples were subjected to a combination of physical and biological pre-treatments of G. lucidum (CGL) and L. edodes (CLE) respectively. The control was non-treated OPF. Two fistulated Katjang goats consuming 440 g/kg OPF and 897 g/ kg commercial pellet daily on dry matter basis were used as rumen fluid donors. In vitro incubation was carried out at 39°C for 24 hours. Proportions of volatile fatty acid were measured at the end of incubation by gas chromatography. Results showed that concentrations of lignin following all pre-treatment methods were significantly lower (p<0.05) at 150(POPF), 90(BGL), 119(BLE), 100(CGL) and 120(CLE) g/ kg DM as compared to the FOPF (190 g/kg). After 24 hours of incubation, the cumulative gas of all treatment groups differed significantly from FOPF. Both BGL and CGL showed significantly higher propionate and butyrate concentrations as well as apparent rumen degradable carbohydrate with 6.57 mg and 6.54 mg, respectively as compared to the FOPF. It appeared that BGL and CGL resulted in higher lignin degradation that increased the in vitro rumen degradability. In conclusion, biological pre-treatment with enzyme extract of WRF, either alone or in combination are promising to improve the quality of OPF.Biological pre-treatment, in vitro ruminal degradability, lignin, oil palm frond, physical pre-treatment, white rot fungi
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Abstract (Viewed: 4)Assessment of the leaf anatomy among Vanilla griffithii, Vanilla kinabaluensis, Vanilla sanguineovenosa and Vanilla sp. 1 from Perak showed generic characterization of the epidermal layer and leaf lamina, suggesting the genus to possess plesiomorphic characters from its progenitor except for the leaf margin outlines. The species were found to differ interspecifically and acknowledged to possess taxonomic value. Leaf margin among the species showed similarity in tapering outline but distinguished in the overall shape and apical curve.Leaf anatomy, marginal outlines, taxonomy, Vanilla
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Abstract (Viewed: 7)Epiphytic algae existing on submerged leaves, stems and roots of Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. (Convolvulaceae) found in Laguna de Bay was studied. Examination of the prepared specimen showed a total of 15 infrageneric taxa belonging to 10 orders, 13 families, 15 genera and 15 species were identified during the study period. Of these taxa, the occurrence of a rare photosynthetic euglenoid, Cryptoglena skujae Marin and Melkonian is reported as new record for the Philippines. Two species are also presented here based on current accepted taxonomic names and these are Limnococcus limneticus (Lemmermann) Komárková, Jezberová, O.Komárek & Zapomelová, and Anabaenopsis circularis (G. S. West) Woloszynska & V. Miller in V. Miller. The algal taxonomic records reported in this survey expand the knowledge regarding diversity and distribution of epiphytic algae from aquatic macrophytes found in Philippine freshwater environment.Epiphytic algae, Laguna de bay, macrophyte, morphotaxonomy, water spinach
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Abstract (Viewed: 6)Dendeng or jerky is the Indonesian traditional dried meat. It is commonly produced by using some spices and addition of starch at various levels. In this research, jerky was made by using fresh white shrimp flesh. White shrimp jerky is a versatile food product for consumption as a snack or meal. This research used three formulations with tapioca flour additions at 0% (A0, control), 5% (A1), 10% (A2), and 15% (A3) based on shrimp flesh weight. Shrimp does not have a wide surface like beef meat, so the processing of shrimp jerky involved only two steps, namely grinding and pressing. The protein, ash and water contents decreased with an increase in the percentage of tapioca flour. The sensory analysis of quantitative data revealed that no parameters were significantly different, except for textural properties. Overall, the addition of tapioca flour not exceeding 10% produced better physicochemical and sensory properties, similar to those of A0, the control. Shrimp jerky produced with or without flour could be a potential food product for consumption as a snack or meal.Jerky, physicochemical, sensory, tapioca flour, white shrimp
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Abstract (Viewed: 7)This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) on the germination of okra seeds (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) exposed under salinity constraint. In the first part, seeds were germinated in hormonal solutions of GA3 (5 µM and 10 µM) and ABA (5 µM and 10 µM), in the presence of NaCl (100 mM). Results showed that NaCl reduced significantly the precocity of seeds germination without influencing its final rate; contrarily, it had a negative effect on hypocotylar growth, fresh weight and seedlings water content. The application of GA3 treatment attenuated the depressive effect of NaCl on germination by stimulating it from the first day of sowing (after 24 h) with 20% and 26.66% under the effect of 5 µM and 10 µM of GA3 respectively. The findings showed that, this phytohormone seemed positively influencing the hypocotylar length, fresh and dry weight as well as the water content of the okra seedlings. On the contrary, ABA was not effective in inducing tolerance to salinity.ABA, GA3, germination, NaCl, okra, salinity
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Abstract (Viewed: 8)Stingless bees are in a diverse group of highly eusocial bees (meliponines) which are reared for their products and pollination potentials. The main source of stingless bee colonies is depending on feral colony hunting that potentially affects the ecosystem. Therefore, establishment of a good practise in colony transfer and splitting may extend the survival of a colony in a new location. This study describes a colony transfer strategy from log to hive and nest characteristics of stingless bee Heterotrigoma itama upon colony splitting from the hive. All 15 colonies from the hollow trunks of trees could survive after one month of transfer to hives. Pre-colony splitting data of 10 daughter colonies showed that the height of brood cells was 14.5 ± 1.20 cm, the number of brood layer was 8.9 ± 2.13, while the number of queen cell was 5.2 ± 1.32. After 12 weeks, the height of brood cells became 16.42 ± 1.05 cm, while the numbers of brood layer and virgin queen eggs were increased to 12.1 ± 1.85 and 6.4 ± 1.65, respectively. However, the correlation between the number of brood layer and virgin queen egg was significantly low (r = 0.421). These results show the ideal strategy for colony transfer from log and colony splitting, and the number of brood layer does not correlate to the presence of virgin queen egg which is crucial for survival of the colony.Colony splitting, Heterotrigona itama, stingless bee

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