This study aimed to examine the effect of firm characteristics and corporate governance on the quality of management compensation disclosure in Indonesia. The adoption of International Accounting Standards (IAS) 24 Related Party Disclosures in Indonesia in 2011 had required disclosures about key management compensation, which was not required by the previous standard. The research was conducted by examining the top 100 listed companies data that ranged between 2011 and 2014. Our findings suggest that institutional ownership and firm size are positively associated with the disclosure level of management compensation. We also found that the proportion of independent audit committee was negatively associated with the level of management compensation disclosure. Finally, we found no evidence that the audit quality had affected the level of management compensation disclosure. Our research has shed light on the determinants of management compensation disclosure in an emerging country with a two-tier board system where arguably the financial reporting environment is opaquer than the more developed countries.
Beauty vlogger, as an influencer on YouTube, provides a change in consumer purchase behaviour. Beauty vlogger is a new platform of eWOM providing honest feedback towards skincare and cosmetics products. This study aimed to examine the effect of beauty vlogger through the persuasive eWOM Message, based on the construct of argument quality, source credibility, source attractiveness, and sources perception on information acceptance of eWOM. This study also evaluated the impact of information acceptance of eWOM on purchase intention through Vlogger in the Beauty Industry. This research used an online questionnaire from 400 female respondents who were the subscribers or the viewers of beauty vlogger with the age ranging from 15 to 25 years old. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The results showed that based on the construct of the Persuasive eWOM message, source credibility was the only variable which had no effect on Information Acceptance of eWOM. However, information acceptance of eWOM and source credibility had a direct effect on purchase intention.
Beauty vlogger, information acceptance of eWOM, persuasive eWOM message, purchase intention
This research investigated the relationship between website quality (functional convenience and representational delight) to consumer online impulse buying with positive emotion as mediating variable, in brief, how functional convenience and representational delight on the website could affect visitors emotion positively, that led into impulse buying. This research was tested on 388 respondents through an online questionnaire. The research scope was several discount group sites in Indonesia. Respondents were Indonesians that once shopped at that discount group. This research used SEM-PLS method with the assistance of SmartPLS v3.2.6 software as a calculation tool. The result of this research showed there was a positive and significant effect from Functional Convenience and Representational Delight on Impulse Buying, either simultaneously or partially through Positive Emotional Affect as a mediating variable.
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between participative decision-making, psychological empowerment and job performance among engineers in the Electrical and Electronic (E&E) manufacturing firms in Malaysia. The study used a structured survey questionnaire to collect data from both managers and engineers as the study utilized matched-pair analysis. Human Resource (HR) managers from 73 manufacturing firms agreed to cooperate in the data collection process. The researchers were able to collect 173 matched responses from both managers and engineers. For the purpose of data analysis, the study used SEM-PLS method to analyse the direct and indirect effect between the variables. The results indicated that all the direct effects were significant and only the perceived meaning dimension of psychological empowerment was not significant as a mediator. The practical implication of participative decision-making and psychological empowerment on job performance leads employees to learn new skills, obtain information, help one another, enhance social contact, and fulfill the obligation.
PLTU-XYZ construction project is a part of the accelerated development of a 10,000- MW power-generation program first-phase which is being launched by the Indonesian government. To handle large projects that have a high level of complexity requires a leader or a project manager who has expertise in the field of power plant construction, has good leadership skills, and who is expected to be able to overcome the difficulties faced during the process of the project. This research was conducted using a qualitative method to analyze the leadership style of the project managers who had led the PLTU-XYZ project and also to investigate their leadership influence on the project managements team performance. Data were collected by using in-depth interviews, which were then analyzed by using thematic-data analysis. The study discovered that the first project manager had an affiliative leadership style, the second had a pacesetting leadership style while the third had a democratic leadership style. The affiliative leadership style and democratic leadership style brought positive effects to the project management teams performance while the pacesetting leadership style brought negative effects to the project management teams performance. This research also found that the leadership style of the project manager was not a factor that could cause delays in the project.
International businesses have been under pressure to consider inclusive workplace practices and mainstream the disability agenda. After decades of isolation as Myanmar slowly opens itself to the world, global businesses making their inroads into the country are poised with several challenges in addressing the agenda of people with disabilities (PWD) in the workplace in Myanmar. This article reports the preliminary study findings of a qualitative study of business professionals, as well as civil society members including PWD, based in the business capital city of Yangon, to examine the various business impediments in their engagement with disabled people in the workplace. The preliminary findings indicate three barriers for businesses in engaging with the issue of disabilities. These are restricted business understandings, a weak social model of disability, nascent management approaches, and an absence of skills and resources for PWD. The study indicates that in the absence of strong public policies and a regulatory environment, voluntary business participation through stakeholder engagement with the government and PWD is an essential way forward for businesses to facilitate disability mainstreaming in the workplace in Myanmar.
Business, disability, Myanmar, people with disabilities, workplace
To be competitive in their business, many of Indonesian Commercial Banks create strategic initiatives that are managed in form of projects and expect that the impact of this projects will bring quantified value to the organization in form of firm performance. Nevertheless, it is important to know organizations capability and project prioritization in delivering those projects so that the quantified value can be optimized. This paper aims to explore how the project portfolio management supports the project delivery capabilities through PMO to respond the environmental uncertainties and how it affects the bank performance that is measured using Return on Asset (ROA). Data were obtained from 74 respondents representing each of 74 commercial banks and analysed using the partial least squares structural equation modelling software SmartPLS 3.0. Study was concluded that project delivery capabilities had a significant impact on ROA in banks with larger equity category. This empirical research reveals that the environmental uncertainties are responded by the banks with bigger equity category (3 and 4) through implementing the right strategic initiatives in form of project that is managed with sufficient project delivery capabilities through PMO and significantly affecting the ROA. This phenomenon, however, is not reflected in Commercial Banks with smaller equity category (1 and 2). The result of this study shall provide insights to Indonesian Bank Regulatory to provide governance in managing strategic initiatives in the form of projects to the Indonesian Commercial Banks.
Many studies have investigated how incumbents react to disruptive business model innovation. However, how digital (tech) startups as the initiator performs business model innovation that consciously or not disrupts incumbents from various industries, has not yet been widely analyzed empirically. This study employed a quantitative method with Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) using SmartPLS 3 software to present and analyze the data. The sample of Indonesia digital startups was taken from the list managed by DailySocial, an Indonesia digital media startup. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among the Founders and or C-Level of Indonesia startups adopting a random sampling technique. The findings of this study showed that startups apply disruptive business model innovation to survive and scale-up. This study also suggested some predictors of disruptive business model innovation. As an alternative to implementing dynamic capabilities, startups need to have transformation capability in the form of continuous reconfiguration capability; leadership aspects, especially entrepreneurship mentality, which are embodied in strategic orientation; and stakeholder management support.
Continuous reconfiguration capability, disruptive business model innovation, startups, strategic orientation, stakeholder management
The present study is aimed at (a) assessing the current overall conditions in slaughterhouses and meat selling centres and (b) evaluating food safety knowledge of workers of slaughterhouses and meat selling centres in two districts of Bangladesh. A questionnaire relating to facilities and hygienic conditions in the slaughterhouses and meat selling centres was administered to the foreperson at each site. A total of 116 workers from 20 selected slaughterhouses were interviewed through another structural questionnaire to evaluate their food safety conditions and hygiene practices. Among the twenty slaughterhouses and meat selling centres surveyed, 55% had roofs, 40% had toilets and 35% had handwashing facilities. Ten (10%) of slaughterhouses slaughtered sick animals. About 20% of the workers had health certificates, 15% of workers wore protective coats and only 10% of workers wore rubber boots. Only 70% of workers were knowledgeable about zoonotic diseases. Knowledge about food safety was poor among workers. The present working conditions in the study areas are not sufficient in the context of food safety. Improvement of facilities and hygiene practices is needed for worker safety and to reduce the possibility of meat contamination. Training should be given to workers of slaughterhouses and meat selling centres to improve food safety knowledge and increase awareness of risks.
Empirical studies should deal with the very important issue of organizational justice and citizenship behavior in contingent workers. This study aimed to determine the role of the leader-member exchange (LMX) theory and perceived organizational support (POS) as a mediator separately against the relationship between organizational justice (OJ) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). The population of the study included 150 non-permanent lecturers at five private universities in Indonesia. Survey methods were used for data collection. Factor analysis output proved that OJ relates to four factors. These four dimensions have various relationships with OCB directed towards the organization (OCBO) and OCB directed towards supervisor (OCBS) separately. The result of the structural equation modeling showed that POS and LMX cannot play a mediating role in the relationship between OJ and OCB in the context of non-regular workers.
Leader-member exchange, organizational citizenship behavior directed to supervisor, organizational citizenship behavior directed to organizational, organizational justice, perceived organizational support
The booming global demand for beauty and personal care products seems to lead to a higher number of women getting involved in fashion and vanity-related businesses. An increasingly popular phenomenon that is significant to this context is hipness, the state of being knowledgeable about the latest trend in style and fashion. For this study, hipness is defined as ones tendency to partake a situation that seems to be popular, in trend or attractive. Although women entrepreneurship had been extensively researched in the past, the phenomenon of hipness as it relates to women entrepreneurship is yet to be explored. To fulfil this gap, this study aims to understand the role and influence of hipness in the process of venture creation among women entrepreneurs. The study first reviewed the literature on hipness and women entrepreneurship in general. It then employed the qualitative methodology and gathered data from in-depth interviews with selected women who owned a business in the related industry. In a nutshell, the study found that hipness played significant roles at every element of venture creation, namely the individual, organizational, environmental as well as the process element. This understanding contributes towards the awareness and appreciation of the significance of hipness as a construct that influences the process of venture creation among women entrepreneurs.
Beauty, entrepreneurial process, fashion, hipness, new venture creation, women entrepreneurs, women entrepreneurship
The main objective of this research was to develop an implementation process of the newly developed continuous improvement (CI) model — NAMS Cycle. Erecting on the affirmative postmodernism philosophy, fundamental epistemological foundations of this research are the Quren and the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the contributions of scholars in Islam. A qualitative methodology was adopted to conduct this research. Data were collected through focus group discussions (FGD) and semi-structured in-depth interviews and were analysed manually. Based on the data, the researchers had finalised a five-step implementation process of the NAMS cycle started with decision making and followed by education and training, implementation, evaluation, and corrective measures. Organisations should test its practicability by implementing the model.
Audiovisual translation, especially subtitling, attracts the attention of many scholars. However, the translation of Persian subtitles is scarce. Translation of cultural differences is even more difficult when an animation has to convey the interesting parts such as humour that includes a broad collection of cultural and linguistic expressions. The present study attempts to investigate the translation strategies of humour in subtitles into Persian and determine the extent each translation strategies are utilised. The study focused on personification-based animation subtitles and primarily on three types of humour -universal, cultural and linguistic- from Schmitzs categorisation of humour. Sixteen animations form the corpus of the study. The study was carried out based on Gottliebs classification of subtitling strategies to determine the translation strategies employed by subtitlers. This descriptive research examined the transferring strategies employed by the subtitler by comparing the segments of the source text and the equivalent of the target text. The outcomes of the study indicate that the most common translation strategies applied by translators in the subtitling of animation comedies from English into Persian are transfer, following by paraphrase, and the less common translation strategies are deletion and resignation. Such usage suggests that the translation is aided by the simplicity of the source language and the non-verbal elements of the animation.
The relationship in commerce and business between Japan and Malaysia has been rapidly developing and expanding in recent times. As a result, there is a dramatic rise in the demand for individuals who have Japanese language proficiency to work in Japanese companies. However, a very limited number of studies have focused on the requirements of Japanese language proficiency and importance of Japanese language skills among employees in JRCSM (Japanese Related Companies in Malaysia), especially in Southeast Asian context. This quantitative research investigated the level of importance of Japanese language proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing among Malaysia Japanese Speaking Graduate Employees working at JRCSM. The results indicate that listening and speaking skills as the most important skills required in JRCSM workplace for communication purposes. The implications of this study indicate the need for the establishment of Japanese language degree programme at Malaysian universities to provide academic support for the Japanese language learners and to make sure that they are equipped with good Japanese listening, speaking, reading and writing skills.
Japanese Related Companies in Malaysia (JRCSM), Japanese language skills proficiency, Malaysian Japanese Speaking Graduate Employees (MJSGEs), workplace communication
Migration contributes significantly to the occurrence of language contact and language changes. Migrant communities as diaspora are always faced with choices whether maintaining the use of mother tongue in interacting, switching to using the word of the host, or using ethnic languages side by side with the host language in a new place. This research is intended to provide evidence of the phenomena of communication and social identity focusing on the language use and attitude of diaspora communities in Bali. It is a sociolinguistic study using descriptive qualitative methods on the Muslim community in three regencies that had lived in Bali for more than a generation. The data were collected through questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and direct observation. The result shows that most diaspora communities see the mother tongue as an essential means of maintaining their social identity. From language choice and attitude perspective, the diaspora community leads to three categories, namely (1) the population that identifies themselves as more diaspora than Balinese; (2) the community claiming themselves as more Balinese than diaspora and (3) the community considering themselves as diaspora and Balinese (dual identity).
Diaspora community, language attitude, language choice, social identity
We adopt Spencer-Oateys approach to examine face concerns relating to self-presentation and identity attributes. Selected extracts from political interviews involving Western interviewers and Iranian interviewees were analysed to examine how participants constructed and negotiated their personal, collective and relational selves as they unfolded in the interaction. The number of political interviews examined was 19, amounting to ten hours of talk. Extracts presented for analysis came from four interviews. The topic raised was concerned with Irans nuclear power programme, which had aroused concern and had been the focus of international attention. Iranian public figures interviewed on global broadcast news were often questioned about Irans refusal to give up its nuclear power programme, which they had to address with care to present Iran and the Iranian people and their individual selves with a more positive self-image to the global public at large.
In Systemic Functional Linguistics, experience is part of the ideational function, consisting of clausal constituents of process, participant, and circumstance. This article discusses the results of a qualitative study, within the framework analysis of Hallidays transitivity system, on how clausal constituent reductions in subtitles have contributed to experiential meaning realizations systemically and functionally. Objective data were collected through purposive sampling from The Kingdom (2007) and its official Indonesian subtitles. The results show that, systemically, reduction happened in seven combinations, namely reduction of participant; process; circumstance; participant and process; participant and circumstance; process and circumstance; and participant, process, and circumstance. The reduction of process resulted in the absence of experiential meaning in the subtitles, which dominantly related to material, relational, and mental processes. The reduction of participant contributed to the nonappearance of one or all of the entities in the process, such as actor and/or goal in material process; senser in mental process; and token in identifying relational process. The reduction of circumstance resulted in the nonattendance of circumstantial information in the process, which dominantly related to location. Functionally, some data show that reduction was imposed obligatorily to accommodate the socio-cultural context of acceptability in Indonesia through film censorship with a religious motivation.
Kompas is one of the most well-known media outlets in Indonesia. Reporting about the fall of President Morsi on 3 July 2013 and the political conflict in Egypt that followed had attracted the attention of international media, including in Indonesia. Using Norman Faircloughs critical discourse analysis, this study aimed to find out how the discourse of political strife was packaged in the daily newspaper of Kompas. Six editions were investigated as the data sources and analyzed by using the content analysis technique. This research proves that Kompas, from the linguistic aspect, in reporting the political conflicts of Egypt after the coup, inclined to be balanced and straightforward. This was evidenced by particular word choices and quotations from natural speakers with no inclination towards the military and Morsis supporters. In the aspect of text production, the Kompas produced an independent news production which is free from all the pressures by accommodating and channeling a fair share of different voices. And In the aspect of the socio-cultural practices, Kompas in producing text cannot be separated from the context that built the news. Therefore, it can be concluded that Kompas provides a platform from both parties that views a difference in a relatively fair manner.
Critical discourse analysis, Egyptian President, Kompas, media representation
Academic stress refers to all kinds of things that trigger tension, otherwise known as stressors, that can be interpersonal, intrapersonal, social, health-related, environmentally related that impede academic growth in educational institutions. Stress in a mild measure is said to spark the fire of motivation and hard work in individuals. However, excessive academic stress that is beyond the coping resources of students and faculty staff stifles their academic and professional progression and can be detrimental to their health. If not well managed, unbridled academic stress can trigger physiological, mental, emotional and physical consequences. This paper comprehensively presents a review of current studies on academic stress. It thoroughly explains the concept of stress, the common academic stressors, their negative implications and stress coping or management mechanisms. Using the research methods, desk survey and document analysis, a systematic search was carried out. The study contends that academic stress when well managed, can help in promoting academic work, elicit good academic outcomes from students and ensure high professional output from faculty staff in higher institutions.
The internationalisation of higher education has contributed to the increasing number of English medium instruction (EMI) implementation in a variety of global teaching contexts, including in Indonesia. One approach used to practice EMI is content and language integrated learning (CLIL). This responsive practice, however, is not without challenges. One main issue is that teachers have limited English language skills to practice EMI. The study reported here investigates lecturers perceptions of EMI practice in a university in Indonesia. Qualitative research methods, specifically incorporating five focus groups and five individual interviews were used to collect the data. Interview transcripts were then analysed thematically. Findings indicate that the teachers lack a clear understanding of EMI practice in a number of key areas including the selection of learning materials for and ways to conduct students learning assessment in EMI classrooms. Pedagogical implications include how to approach code-switching and how to incorporate ICT into EMI learning materials. Recommendations for strategies to support future EMI implementation are also outlined.
The urgent need to transfer the impact of educational research into practice is widely reflected in national agendas around the world. However, the gap between research and practice persists in other parts of the world as well as in Malaysia. This study sought to explore the factors that drive educational research in Malaysia. We employed a qualitative case study design to investigate the practices of 14 educational researchers using face to face in-depth interviews and content analysis of their research documents. The findings revealed three major drivers- researching for key performance indicators (KPIs), researching for citation and H-index, and researching for personal development as a researcher, which shaped the research agenda of educational researchers. Higher education policy-related implications are discussed to have educational researchers effectively target their research for teachers consumption for improved teaching standards.
Educational research, evidence-based practice, higher education, Malaysia, teachers
This study aimed to examine the pre-service teachers (PSTs) learning experiences of international teaching practicum (ITP) in Indonesia. The researchers employed a case study research design and the participants comprised three female PSTs majoring in Mathematics from a Malaysian public university who undertook the ITP in a public junior high school in Indonesia for eight weeks. The data were collected from the PSTs reflective journals and face-to-face interviews which were analysed using the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The findings revealed four major themes of their learning experiences of ITP, namely mathematics lesson planning, mathematics teaching and learning, guidance from mentor teacher and contributions to the school. The study indicates that ITP could be an alternative platform for PSTs to gain positive learning experiences and prepare them for the challenging teaching environment in the times of globalization
Indonesia, international teaching practicum, mathematics, pre-service teachers
In the framework of the Intercultural Communicative Competence - a Competitive Advantage for Global Employability project 14 modules targeting the development of students intercultural communicative competence were developed by international teams of educators, piloted and implemented in 13 higher educational institutions across Europe, involving 66 educators and more than 800 students, who were the direct beneficiaries of the project. The impact of the project is felt by stakeholders, researchers, decision makers, and potential global employers, who have the benefit of a better trained and skilled workforce who can meet the demands of international business. The dissemination of the project results included a collection of 30 case studies on the implementation of the modules, providing valuable feedback by the participating educators. In addition to giving an overview of the project, the paper presents a pilot study of implementing a module including telecollaborative exchanges into teaching intercultural communication for business students. Findings from the pilot study show how (tele)collaboration provided students an opportunity to work in international teams, how it contributed to foreign language skills development and how it increased intercultural awareness and sensitivity.
This paper investigates the short-run and long-run dynamics between foreign trade and economic growth in 40 sub-Saharan African countries over the period of 1992-2018. It utilized Cross-sectional Augmented Autoregressive Distributed Lag (CS-ARDL) panel data estimations to handle cross-sectional dependency and dynamic heterogeneity of the countries under investigation. The empirical result shows that foreign trade significantly increased the economic growth of sub-Saharan African countries in the short-run but had a significant negative effect on economic growth in the long-run. The results also confirm that total trade, imports, exports, and trade balance Granger caused economic growth in sub-Saharan African countries. For sub-Saharan Africa trade to have a larger effect on economic growth, countries need to modify their structures of a trade by diverting from exports of raw materials to high value-added goods. Moreover, trade policy measures should be directed towards the promotion of investments in capital intensive sectors and human capital development that can absorb technological improvement from advanced countries.
Economic growth, foreign trade, panel data, sub-Saharan Africa
As of December 2017, the Malaysian household debt relative to gross domestic product stood at nearly 85%, of which half of them were the residential housing loans. When the level of household indebtedness reaches high, it posts a negative impact on both households and financial institutions in the event of adverse external shock. Hence, there is a need for a deeper understanding of the default risk factors for residential properties. This paper unveiled the determinants of the Malaysian banks residential properties nonperforming loans (NPLs) using the Autoregressive Distributed Modelling (ARDL) framework. In the sample period of 2006 to 2017, households bore inflation risk whereby a reduction in the household income adjusted for inflation affected their debt repayment obligation. Besides that, households were found vulnerable during the period of unemployment therefore would be more likely to default when they lost their future income. Further, a negative global crude oil shock and a higher overnight policy rate worsened the level of purchase of residential properties NPLs. Finally, the global financial stress index showed no significant impact, indicating the Malaysian households were less affected by external financial shock in the given context.
Autoregressive distributed lags, macroeconomic determinants, long run, Malaysia, residential properties nonperforming loans
Recently, price instability of natural rubber (NR) in the world market has affected the NR economy severely. It is believed that NR price can no longer be explained solely by the fundamental factors supply-demand, but it is largely driven by external factors. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the determinants of NR prices in 4 major NR producing countries namely Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. Annual data from 2008 to 2017 was collected and panel data analysis was performed. Results of Hausman Test suggested that Fixed Effect Model (FEM) was preferable than Random Effect Model (REM) in the study. Results indicated that NR production, consumption, Shanghai NR price, crude oil price and synthetic rubber (SR) price were statistically significant. This study could contribute to government policy implementation in NR producing countries to ensure the stability of NR production and price which will benefit the smallholders and countries economic growth.
Indonesia is one of the members of the World Trade Organization that took part in ratifying the World Trade Organization Agreement on Technical Barrier to Trade (WTO-TBT) through Law Number 7 of 1994 on Agreement of Establishing the World Trade Organization (PWTO Law). In accordance with PWTO Law, Indonesia is required to implement the trade regulations, including technical infrastructures such as metrology. The objective of this study is to examine the harmonization of law in the field of metrology as a consequence of the WTO-TBT Agreement. This research applied a juridical normative and descriptive analysis method. The data were obtained by conducting a literature review. The study showed that the legal consequence of WTO-TBT on the metrology regulation had discovered the need to harmonize the Law Number 2 of 1981 on Metrology with various regulations. Many regulations and international organizations are involved since the establishment of WTO-TBT concerning accurate measurements in the field of metrology. In conclusion, the cooperation of various countries under the framework of the WTO obliges Indonesia to harmonize its trade and metrology law. Such harmonization should also cover the rules at a regional level.
Harmonization, legal metrology, legal system, metrology law, international trade
The State has a responsibility for preventing the violation of the indigenous faith believers. Violations occur in the form of discrimination and coercion such as the forced embracing of a particular religion, there is no religious column in the identity card, lack of public, law, health and education services. Indigenous faith believers fight against the discrimination by filling a petition to the constitutional court based on the principles of freedom of religion. The Constitutional Court granted this petition through Decision Number 97/PUU-XIV/2016. However, the Constitutional Court Decision has faced obstacles in its implementation. The government responses to the Constitutional Court Decision by enacting the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs Number 118 of 2017 concerning Family Card Forms, Registers, and Civil Registration Deeds. This regulation allows indigenous faith believers to get their religious status in the ID card, marriage certificates, health insurances, poverty certificates, and registration as voters for the general election. This research aims to investigate the State Position in the fulfillment of the Constitutional Rights of the indigenous faith believers and how the decision is being implemented and the obstacle in implementing the decision. Based on constitutional theory analysis, this research argues that the constitutional court decision has a fundamental role to fulfil the legal status of indigenous faith believers as the Indonesian citizen, while the implementation of the decision has been taking slow progress.
This paper discusses the possibility for Indonesia of the plea-bargaining model as a solution for the recovery of financial losses to the state in corruption cases. Plea bargaining has become a common procedure in common law countries, where the majority of cases are resolved through the mechanism of plea bargaining. This paper uses a conceptual, historical, and comparative approach through literature review to examine how Indonesia as a civil law country could apply plea bargaining in its criminal justice system, particularly in cases of corruption involving financial losses to the state. This paper concludes that corruption prevention efforts focusing on state losses require new approaches to be more effective; this would be in line with both the UNCAC as well as the applicable elements of the legal system in Indonesia. The mechanism of plea bargaining, an agreement reached between the prosecutor and the accused persons in which the accused person acknowledges his or her guilt and willingly returns the gains of their corruption, is, on the other hand, still in line with one of the clauses in the UNCAC, and also has similarities with the existing provisions of the Indonesian Criminal Code through the Afdoening Buiten Proces as well as in the Law on Economic Offences.
Corruption, discretion, plea bargaining, state financial losses
In the current era of Post-Truth, the concept of truth is not easily found out. Nowadays the false or fabricated appearance and ideas when presented make them appear more logical, reasonable and far widely accepted with emotional and personal belief, and appeal than the original and pure truth. Taking this concept into account, the current research paper aims to investigate how Lord Shiva who is worshipped by the Hindus the world over as the Lord of Lords, has been portrayed as a human being possessing extraordinary prowess by Amish Tripathi in his first and debut novel of the Shiva Trilogy - The Immortals of Meluha. The paper examines the post-truth hidden in the evolution of myths and fables surrounding Lord Shiva and the other Indian deities and portrays the evolution of Lord Shiva as the Supreme God from a human being who lived centuries ago. The novel under investigation has been analysed using the Postmodern and Post-truth theories and perspectives.
African Literature has grown exponentially in the past 50 years, with key literary giants as pioneers establishing its literary field. Even in present research and scholarship, African writings have helped inform and articulate modes of literary and theoretical discourse. Even more so, early African womens works (Flora Nwapa, Buchi Emecheta, Ama Ata Aidoo and Mariama Ba), were said to have laid the foundations for contemporary African women writers to continue speaking boldly for Africa and its women. My article argues that the bold strides taken by early writers Buchi Emecheta and Mariama Ba through the epistolary form, were fundamental for contemporary third-generation African womens writing that continued this legacy of inscription. Sade Adenirans Imagine This (2007), Chimamanda Ngozi Adichies Purple Hibiscus (2004) and Adaobi Tricia Nwaubanis I do not come to you by chance (2009) are selections of works whose literary topos employs the epistolary forms of letters, diary entries and emails as ways to articulate the nuances experienced in Africa. Drawing on the similar form of the epistle used by Emecheta and Ba, the results of the analysis of Adeniran, Adichie and Nwaubanis works will inform us of the ways in which pioneering writings by African women were trailblazing to the quest of African female inscription.
African literature, African women writers, epistolary, inscription, third generation
This paper is devoted to dissecting the master-slave dialectics in Carlos Bulosans America is in the Heart (1947). The paper deals with the dialectics as a depiction of a unique productive process and transformation in human societies. Dialectics describes the evolution of the self-conscious human individuality as a foundation of the individuals moral agency. The readings provided in this paper reveal a part of the wide scope of interpretations this dialectics can provide. I argue that the novel represents a historical stance, in which Bulosans self-consciousness is formed. His journey from the Philippines to America represents the master-slave dialectics introduced by Hegel and adopted by Marx later on. The paper illustrates the role of the dialectics in helping the protagonist to better understand his identity and to overcome his internal conflicts.
America is in the Heart, Carlos Bulosan, Filipino Americans, Hegel, identity recognition, Marx, master-slave dialectics, self-consciousness
The internet has come along with a myriad of positive and negative challenges. One of the positive developments is the increased access for all age categories, especially people of young ages; however, it is not without a side effect. A cyberbullying threat has become interesting areas of research over the years because of the importance of the concepts toward understanding childrens online behaviours and making the internet safe again for the kids to surf. Thus, this article seeks to provide a further understanding of the phenomenon by reporting the findings of a study performed in Selangor, a state of Malaysia. A questionnaire was administered to 375 respondents selected using stratified random sampling from a population of 6,671 primary and secondary school pupils aged 9 to 16 years. The key findings revealed that most children had been involved in the act of cyberbullying. Interestingly, most of them were aware of online threats but did not know that it was bad behaviour. However, most of them were rarely involved in a sex-related cyberbullying incident. A collective approach to guarantee the internet safety of children and balance their online prospects and risks is recommended to ensure childrens online safety.
A study was conducted to investigate the journalistic practices in Malaysian news outlets post-2008 general elections through a combination of content analysis and interviews. Through a content analysis of news articles of an UMNO-owned media (Utusan Malaysia) as well as an independent news portal (Malaysiakini), the study identified five different news frames (conflict, human interest, economic consequences, morality, and responsibility) employed in the news articles. The study established that the previously government-owned media relied heavily on the morality frame, while the responsibility frame was most dominant in independent news portals. The study revealed that the responsibility frame was written in a positive tone while morality and conflict frames were written in negative tones. The study suggests that there were differences and similarities in terms of framing practices employed by the media. It also found that the tonality of the news strengthened the functions of frames. To further understand the relationship between the frames and journalistic practices, semi-structured interviews with editors from both media outlets were conducted. The editors noted that their organizations agendas functioned as guidelines on how political issues were highlighted. The interviews also revealed that although both news outlets received political instructions, the media still strived to promote fair reporting within their scope and capacity.
Framing practices, independent news portals, Malaysias 12th general election, Malaysian politics, pro-government media
Since its existence, Sin Chew Daily (SCD) as the largest circulating Chinese press in Malaysia plays the role of bridging the Chinese community with the ruling government. SCD does this by informing the government of the day about the demands of the Chinese community in terms of Chinese culture, Chinese education and Chinese language in multiethnic Malaysia. As the Chinese culture is an important element to the Chinese community and as the indicator of their cultural identity, the implementation of affirmative action and ethnic based policies that favor the Bumiputeras (literally, sons of the soil) has been deemed as sidelining other Malaysians. As such, the Chinese community has taken up efforts of self-preserving the Chinese language, Chinese culture, and Chinese education and such efforts of preserving and safeguarding the Chinese culture are carried out through various platforms including on SCD. This paper uses content analysis to examine the efforts of Chinese cultural preservation by SCD as it highlights issues of education, cultural and religious rights of the Chinese community to the ruling government from May 1, 2012, to April 30, 2013, one year before the 13th Malaysian General Election (GE13).
Chinese culture, Chinese education, Chinese press, cultural preservation, identity, Malaysia, Sin Chew Daily
The concept of emotional intelligence (EQ) is an important topic among todays modern society. People are now gaining realisation that these skills can help them in better managing both their professional and personal lives. However, scales available to measure EQ are limited especially among the Malaysian population. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the psychometric proprieties of the Bar-On Emotional Youth Version Quotient Inventory (EQi:YV) in Malaysian samples. A total of 728 students aged between 14 to 20 years old from four secondary schools in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah participated in this study. The EQ-i:YV contains 35 self-report items designed to assess: Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Adaptability, and Stress Management. The Structural Equation Modelling was used to assess the suitability of the model. The reliability and validity of the model were also measured. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test its compatibility. Multiple goodness-of-fit indicators initially revealed that the measurement model failed to reach some of the recommended standards for model fitness. After necessary adjustments were made, the modified model, which retained 30 items, produced a better level of fitness and met recommended standards. The analysis found that EQi: YV had a satisfactory level of reliability despite some convergent and discriminant validity issues. Overall, the EQi:YV is suitable for use in the Malaysian context. Recommendations for future research are also discussed.
Multicultural competency and spirituality help trainee counselors to navigate the challenges of being a professional helper. Recently, the integration of multicultural counseling and spirituality have been proliferating in a number of research fields. Multicultural competency is ones awareness, knowledge, and skills of various cultures. Next, spirituality is the sense of inter-connectedness with God and self-efficacy refers to individuals beliefs regarding their ability to accomplish tasks successfully. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between: (a) multicultural competency and trainee counselors self-efficacy in dealing with legal and ethical issues; and (b) spirituality and trainee counselors self-efficacy in dealing with legal and ethical issues. One hundred and forty-eight respondents from three private universities in Malaysia participated in the study through simple random cluster sampling. A total of three instruments were used to measure multicultural competency, spirituality, and self-efficacy respectively. The data were analyzed using Pearson Correlation. Correlation analyses revealed that there is a positive relationship between multicultural competency and self-efficacy. There is also a significant relationship between spirituality and self-efficacy. The coefficient of r value between multicultural competency and self-efficacy reflected a substantial relationship; while the strength of the relationship between spirituality and self-efficacy was weak. Hence, this study is vital as it provides the idea of incorporating multicultural competency and spirituality in the process of shaping counselors who eventually will be able to deal with legal and ethical issues in counseling efficaciously.
There are very few studies that consider the relationship between sociocultural identities and tourists destination choices, in which almost none focusing on the education tourism context. The objective of this research was to examine the effect of national identity, consumer cosmopolitanism and consumer ethnocentrism on international study destination choice. One hundred and twenty questionnaires were distributed to final year high school students, with a usable response rate of 75.83%. The data were analysed using partial least square-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The study found a significant positive effect of consumer cosmopolitanism on students intention to study in Australia based on their perceived image of the destination and institutions. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis, national identity had a significant positive effect on the destination image of Australia.
Consumer cosmopolitanism, consumer ethnocentrism, destination image, institution image, national identity
The profession of gerontology social work in Malaysia is not well known and is usually assumed as volunteer work without any professional certification. This study explored the competency skills and social work impact in gerontology, among the graduates in enhancing their interest in caring for the elderly. This study explored the vocational training utilization through Gerontology Social Work courses at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). This study used a qualitative approach from 9 respondents who were selected through purposive sampling. The study was conducted at Rumah Ehsan Kuala Kubu Bahru, Selangor. Data were analysed in verbatim from the transcripts acquired via in-depth interviews with the respondents. The study found that Malaysian Skills Certificate (SKM) Level 3 apprentice in elderly care, felt that hands on learning in the actual setting while performing their industrial training were more meaningful and immersive compared to just learning the theories in the lecture room. Most of the respondents said their growing awareness and enthusiasm had now become the catalyst to defend the neglected senior citizens in the institutions. The three main values expressed by the respondents were patience, empathy and higher quality services should be inculcated in caring for the elderly. This study proposed better marketing at higher learning institutions and collaboration with stakeholders to improve employment opportunities among gerontology social work graduates who have the Malaysian Skills Certificate (SKM) Level 3 in elderly care.
Competencies, elderly care, gerontology, graduates, social worker & vocational education and training
Environmentally adverse conditions, poverty, and social status can result in healthcare vulnerability. This paper aims at explaining the health-related expenditure patterns and low-income households (B40) characteristics in Malaysia, to identify the health vulnerability factors. Descriptive analysis and k-means clustering methods were employed to obtain demographic information of the low-income group and to cluster the group with different health vulnerability factors, namely (1) medical appliances, equipment, and products, (2) outpatient services, and (3) hospital or in-patient services. Based on the cluster analysis, three groups with different health vulnerability factors were identified. Researchers studied each groups characteristics and identified that the most vulnerable group comprised those having females as the heads of household and not working (10.5%), having low or no education at all, having the lowest income of RM1027.70, and living in the rural area (59.8%). Their health expenditure was also the lowest in which the average expenditure on medication was just RM16; RM5 for outpatient services and RM1.00 for in-patient services. The other two groups with better health vulnerability were households with higher education level and working for a living. Based on the findings, the authorities should give more attention to this most vulnerable group and prioritise them for better healthcare accessibility and in policymaking.
Cluster analysis, healthcare, poverty, social status, vulnerable
Recognising the increase of food trucks as well as the failure rate of businesses in Malaysia, this study explores the patronization intention of university students towards food trucks. The results will contribute towards an increased understanding of the food truck business potential especially for its operators by firstly understanding what influences their customers or potential customers intention to patronize food trucks. Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) has been employed in this quantitative study. Systematic sampling was used and the data was collected through an online survey from 263 respondents. SmartPLS software and Variance Based Structural Equation Modelling (VB-SEM) were used to analyse the data. Overall, the findings indicated a significant relationship between all the variables studied in the TPB model; attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, convenience and product attribute with patronization intention. The outcome of this research provides information to food truck business operators which can be taken into consideration when planning ways to increase students patronage.
Food truck business, food truck patronization, intention, theory of planned behaviour, university students
The development of scientific knowledge in the healthcare setting shall be geared to improve the health conditions of society. Perhaps, this is one of the reasons why Muslim jurists (fuqahe) have acknowledged the importance of biomedical practices and thus, in principle, agreed on the permissibility of its practices. However, they also raise some Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) and ethical issues about the methods and implications of biomedical practices. Despite the great discovery of articular cartilage tissue engineering, harm and therapeutic uncertainties spark the bioethical concerns, including the use of biological samples from a cadaver in the experimental setting. The study was done by utilising the secondary analysis of local Muslim jurists opinions (fatwe) related to the sampling of tissue from the cadaver. The scenario of cadaveric tissue sampling can be linked to the fatwe on the issue of (1) donating cadaver for research purpose, (2) conducting post-mortem or autopsy, (3) embalming the human cadaver, and (4) donating cadaveric organs. The current fatwe has shown that honouring a human body is an essential aspect of Islamic law. Thus, researchers may need to consider other options such as obtaining the biological samples from living donor as alternatives in studying the articular cartilage regeneration.
Al-taawun is a concept regarding mutual help and cooperation in Islam, which is advocated in the al-Quran and Sunnah. Its role in defraying wedding expenditure is seen as a solution to the huge budget incurred when preparing for a wedding reception. Contemporary societies are increasingly faced with the burden of costly weddings, and this can have adverse effects, especially on the Malay-Muslim community in Malaysia. This study examined the application of al-taawun to supplement wedding expenses. This qualitative study involved 30 married couples, who were selected for face-to-face interviews comprising semi-structured interviews. The results were arranged and analysed according to themes relevant to this study. Data were examined, coded and categorised based on emerging themes. The ATLAS.ti version 7.5.6 software was used for analysing data, which involved five steps, namely transcription, compilation, coding, categorisation and drawing inferences. The findings indicate that three forms of al-taawun are practised, namely monetary donations, payment for goods and services, and contributions to defray the cost of wedding arrangements. The involvement of family, neighbours, friends and the local community helps to defray the overall wedding expenses.
Al-taawun, Malay-Muslim weddings, marriage expenses, wedding expenditure
This study aimed to examine the effect of independent corporate governance organ activities (including the busyness level and political connections of independent directors and audit committee) on the level of tax avoidance. In addition, this study also examined the effect of a countrys tax environment on the relationship between independent corporate governance organ activities and the level of tax avoidance. This paper used cross-country analysis with the scope of countries in the ASEAN region, consisting of the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. The results of this study showed that the busyness level and political connections of independent directors and the audit committee positively affected the companys tax avoidance level in a country with an uncompetitive tax environment. On the other hand, the busyness level and political connections of independent directors and the audit committee did not affect the companys tax avoidance level in a country with a competitive tax environment. The findings prove that the relationship between independent corporate governance organ activities and company tax avoidance activities is affected by the countrys tax environment. This study is the first to examine the role of a countrys tax environment on the relationship between independent corporate governance organ activities and tax avoidance levels.
Corporate governance, busyness level, political connection, tax avoidance, tax environment
There is a renewed interest of the Sarawak government to develop the highlands in the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE). However, studies on the perception of the highlanders towards development are scanty. To understand the anticipations of the highlanders and the perceived barriers of development, this study adopted a quantitative approach involving a questionnaire survey among 236 households in the Upper Baram and Mulu. The survey shows that the participants generally welcomed development but were unsure of the modes of development to adopt. In terms of the type of development, most participants preferred rice cultivation and handicraft-making. Most participants in Mulu desired to engage as entrepreneurs while those in Bario and IHAS area were keen on employment. A lack of capital and manpower was perceived as the major barrier of development at individual level. At the community level, the major barriers are remoteness of the settlements and the lack of basic infrastructure and facilities. To optimize the outcomes of development, this study calls for an in-depth understanding of the highlanders worldview.
Bario, development, highland, Mulu, Orang Ulu, Upper Baram
The paper discusses Pangandaran batik as a distinctive batik style from East Priangan Region, West Java Indonesia. It aims to uncover the distinctive characteristics and the local wisdom as the cultural wealth of Pangandaran. Data were collected through direct observation and interviews with the Head of Batik Kodja Craftsmen of Pangandaran and an artist of Badud and Ronggeng Gunung. It is revealed that Pangandaran batik style has several substantial differences from other batik styles in the East Priangan Region of West Java, and the local wisdom behind the Pangandaran batik style is reflected in the depiction of the Badud and Ronggeng Gunung as iconic art forms in the batik as well as in the sea-based life of Pangandaran people.
Batik, distinctive, East Priangan, Pangandaran, style, West Java
This study analyzes the stock returns on the days surrounding stock split events to find whether there are price movement anomalies during the split event of Indonesian public companies and whether they follow a signalling hypothesis or a trading range/liquidity hypothesis. This study used the stock returns data for 60 days around 50 split events of publicly traded stock on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2010 to 2015. This study found an anomaly pattern of stock prices with the ex-date as the peak and a positive average return that could not be explained by the general market movement. The cross-sectional regression of the conservative capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and three other factors failed in explaining the ex-date return anomalies. The results of the empirical model indicate that ex-date return anomalies were not related to a firms operating performance but were strongly related to the split factor, weakly related to trading volume, and also weakly related to the market value. Overall, these findings support the trading range/liquidity hypothesis.
Saline intrusion (SI) is increasing at an accelerating rate in the coastal zones of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD). This challenges various crop production practices in these areas. Using ecological and social approaches, this paper aims to explore farmers perceptions of SI occurring in Tra Vinh and Kien Giang provinces, and their adaptation measures to deal with the situation. A mixed-method approach was used, including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and household surveys. The results demonstrated that farmers have implemented various adaptation measures in tackling SI impacts. High market demand for shrimp also contributed to farmers decisions in shifting farming practices. The study underscores the important role of the integrated shrimp-rice system as a more comparatively sustainable model to the intensive shrimp culture in the face of SI. Qualitative analysis revealed water conflicts occurring in mixed rice and shrimp farming areas driven by the poor performance of combined irrigation and drainage systems together with the undefined water demarcation zones between rice and shrimp farmers. The paper provides better insights into how farmers adaptation strategies could facilitate decision-making processes with regard to water management and adaptation policies in the coastal areas. It calls for local governments attention to modifying water infrastructure to better address water-related issues.
The Mobile Mapping System is a trend that provides a comprehensive database of information including video images. The goal of this paper is to introduce an image processing method that could be integrated with GPS data to automatically control the road safety standards for speed limit signs before horizontal curves and identify the problems. The proposed method introduced a new trend in the area of image processing and pattern recognition. The results substantiated a high percentage of success in identification and accuracy in sign distinction. Application of support vector machine led to 92% accuracy in the identification of the signs and 97% accuracy in speed limit distinction.
Horizontal curve, image processing, mobile mapping system (MMS), road safety audit, speed limit sign, Support Vector Machine (SVM)
This study evaluated the performance of the official tourism Twitter accounts of the four major tourist destinations in Southeast Asia namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. By using a data analytical software, the study collected data related to the number of tweets, number of interactions, engagement rate, number of followers, number of potential reaches and viral reach from the accounts during an observation of one month of the observation period. A series of correlation analyses was conducted in order to reveal associations among the variables with tourism performance indicators namely, the amount of receipt and also the travel and tourism competitiveness index. The results of the study show that Thailands official Twitter account generates the highest number of tweets and interactions, while Singapores account was found to be the least productive account. Despite the low level of productivity, the account recorded the highest number of engagement rates. Moreover, Indonesias account was found to be the account with the highest number of followers, potential reach, and viral reach. Results of correlation tests revealed that the number of interactions was significantly associated with the number of international receipts while engagement rates correlated significantly with the travel and tourism competitiveness index. Finally, conclusions for scientific and practical purposes are proposed.
Competitiveness index, evaluation, social media, Southeast Asia, tourism, Twitter