This study reviews the current trends of research in English for Academic Purposes (EAP) as a subfield of Applied Linguistics. Through an extensive review of literature and an undertaking process of data collection, 15 books, 6 book chapters, and 347 research articles (RAs) were analyzed for identifying the major issues in EAP. Drawing upon the grounded approach, it was found that Academic Writing, Curriculum Development, and Critical EAP were the most challenging issues in EAP studies. Each of the research themes subsumed important issues such as genre analysis and approaches to teaching academic writing for Academic Writing; discussions on standard variety of English in academic contexts and practice of EAP among local students and teachers for Curriculum Development; and, critical thinking and pragmatism for Critical EAP. These issues and challenges explained in this paper hoped to be helpful for EAP to be matured as a field, and see itself in charge of preparing students to hold new roles both in academic and cultural contexts. However, it is acknowledged that, the concerns and issues are still unresolved and further research is needed for responding to them.
Since teachers are known to be models in the classroom, mastery of the course they teach and a good English proficiency should be a few of the qualities that should be considered. This present study attempts to identify, classify, and analyze the sentence-level writing errors found in the compositions of fifty (50) selected probationary faculty members in one of the universities in Mindanao, Philippines. The instrument used in the study was the participants composition in English. Fifty compositions were subjected to error identification, classification, and analysis. Findings revealed that syntactical errors were found common in the participants compositions. Other errors found were lexical, morphological, and mechanical. The results showed that the probationary faculty members really need a refresher course on the basics of the language for the enhancement of their language ability. The implication of this study is for the school administrators, deans, and department heads to look into the English proficiency of their faculty members and design a language enhancement training program to address the problem.
Error analysis, faculty members, language proficiency, sentence-level errors, writing skills
Code-switching is described as the shifting that occurs between two or more languages concurrently within one conversation. This study aims to examine the application of code-switching between Informal Iraqi Dialect (IID) and English language among Iraqi Arab speakers of English via one of the smartphone applications, namely WhatsApp Messenger (WM). The study also seeks to recognize the types of code switching and motivations among Iraqi students of English for switching from IID into English language. This research adopted a qualitative approach, which involved Fifty (50) typed conversations of twenty (20) Iraqi post-graduate students studying at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Data were collected via two instruments, dubbed WM application to gather the typed conversations and semi-structured interviews. The results obtained from the WM application indicated that the most predominant type of code-switching (CS) used by the participants was intra-sentential CS, especially the intra-lexical code-switching. The findings suggest that the majority of the Iraqi students are inclined to code-switch to English language in smaller parts within the word boundary. The analysis of the interview data disclosed three motivations for the application of code-switching, namely linguistic, technological, and political factors.
This paper presents the development of an automated essay scoring mechanism based on the Malaysian University English Test essay marking criteria using the Design-based research (DBR). It is a learning intervention to facilitate students in their essay writing process and at the same time, serves as a tool for teachers to mark essay. DBR is the most commonly used method for conducting research in technological enhanced learning context especially for solving real classroom problem. The development of the automated scoring system is presented step by step following the four phases in DBR model. In each phase, data collection procedure, research instrument and the lessons learnt that lead to further iterations are discussed in order to produce a workable and effective automated essay grader. The outcome resulted from the five iterations lead to the present intervention, Automated Essay Scorer with Feedback (AESF). This system allows teachers to collect samples of marked essays to be trained to grade newly entered essays. Then the teacher can set task and keep track of students progress and provide additional feedback as well as rectify the scores generated. For students, they can practice writing essays and demand for feedback at any point of their essays writing process for the system to provide scores by paragraph as well as the whole essay. The system was tested by 24 teachers from 5 schools in real-classroom context with favorable comment.
Automated essay scorer with feedback (AESF), design-based research, Malaysian University English Test (MUET)
This study was conducted to assess the quality of the self-assessment speaking rubric adapted by Montgomery from Bill Heller in 2000. The rubric consisted of six aspects with a four-point rating scale and was originally written in English and aimed to be used by the English language learners. As the respondents of this research were the Indonesian students who learn Arabic language as a foreign language, the rubric was therefore modified and translated into Indonesian language. Rasch measurement model approach provides various analyses with empirical evidence about the quality of instrument by looking at the rating scale analysis, summary statistics, item fit, principal component analysis and Wright map. About 43 Arabic language learners from a university in Salatiga, Indonesia, were involved in this study. The finding showed that the four rating options were clearly understood by the respondents. All six items in the rubric were also appropriately measure students speaking skills. High value of person (0.84) and item reliability (0.94) indicated good quality of both respondents and instrument. The Cronbach alpha value 0.83 indicated high reliability. To sum up, the self-assessment speaking rubric has a good quality to measure speaking skills and is appropriate to be used by students to self-assess their Arabic speaking ability.
The Malaysian University English Test (MUET) has been used as a tool to measure students proficiency in the English language. It serves as a prerequisite for entry to tertiary education, as well as a requirement for graduating students, particularly those pursuing a non ESL programme. Students continuous poor performances in the writing component in MUET resulted in the revamp by the Malaysian Examination Council. In analysing the cause for such poor performances, this study aims to investigate pre-university students perceptions on the use of mobile learning (e.g., learning via smartphone, iPad, tablet computer and Personal Digital Assistant) for writing. A total of 157 pre-university students from five national secondary schools in Betong, Sarawak were involved in this study. This study employed a mixed-method approach. The findings indicated that a majority of the students had positive perceptions on the use of mobile learning. The use of mobile learning could enhance the students proficiency in English language. This is crucial because having excellent proficiency helps to improve students writing skills and performance. By integrating the elements of ICT in learning, it also meets the Malaysian Education Blueprint necessity to maximise the use of ICT in the classroom; in line with the twenty-first century learning.
Malaysian University English Test, mobile learning, pre-university students, proficiency, writing
Error treatment is one of the crucial factors in successful language learning; however, it is an important question if the feedback for error treatment should be provided implicitly or explicitly. The existing problems in the students pronunciation motivated the researchers to compare two types of corrective feedback, explicit vs. implicit, in treating learners phonological errors in terms of their immediate and delayed effects. For this purpose, the researchers selected 32 female participants in the upper-intermediate level English classes in Talash language institute located in Ghir out of 50 students through administration of The Certificate of Proficiency in English Speaking Test. The selected participants were randomly assigned into two groups. Both groups took a pronunciation pre-test and then one of the groups received explicit feedback; whereas the other group got implicit feedback. The participants probable progress was measured immediately after the treatment and one more time after a four-week delay. The collected data were analyzed by running independent samples t-tests on the pre-test and post-test scores. The results of the data analysis revealed that corrective feedback types, explicit and implicit, differ from each other in terms of their immediate and delayed effects on treating the participants phonological errors in favor of the explicit one. The results of this study could help language teachers, EFL learners, and also material developers in providing better conditions through selecting the best type of feedback on errors for learning English pronunciation and treating phonological errors.
Effective communication skills are shown to foster the relationship and collaboration in professional interactions. Particularly in job interviews, communication skills play an important role since it turns out to be of the major criteria of employability ever since the 20th century. This is apparent as many university graduates are unable to secure a job within 3-6 months after graduation due to poor communication skills. This paper aims to investigate the importance of communication skills for employment and by adopting theory of communication, it wishes to address in detail employers expectations. Five fresh graduates from local and private universities and two human resource officers (HR) from one organisation participated in this study. A semi-structured questionnaire was utilized as a tool to collect the data. The findings show that a majority of fresh graduates were weak in communication skills in relation to clarity, completeness, conciseness, and correctness. The inaccurate vocabulary (clarity), incomplete sentences (conciseness), unable to provide detailed answers (completeness), and error in grammar in the utterances and sentences (correctness) were found in the communication skills by these graduates. The study suggests the integration of 4Cs (clarity, conciseness, completeness and correctness) into the current communication skills course modules, facilitation of simulated interviews to assist undergraduates enhance their communication skills prior to attending any actual job interviews.
Communication skills, employability skills, Malaysian graduates
Research on spoken language has mainly focused on spoken discourses in settings such as classroom and workplace. Another important use of speech, casual conversation, has received much less attention. Casual conversation is a functional and semantic activity. It is a site for the establishment and development of social identity and interpersonal relationships; a way of conveying who we are and of interacting with others in different contexts. This paper reports a comparative study on two casual conversations, which naturally occurred in two different settings; between international students from different language backgrounds and between native speakers of English. The texts were constructed in everyday social settings and reflected the role of language in the construction of social identities and interpersonal relations. The two settings displayed different uses of language to construct solidarity, intimacy and affiliation. The study used a functional and semiotic theoretical framework for analysing casual conversation, in order to describe and explain two aspects of casual talk; namely involvement and humour. Using a bottom-up approach, the conversations were analysed to look at the use of naming, technicality, swearing and slang for the purpose of involvement. Humour in each conversation was analysed through language devices that triggered laughter from participants. Situational and cultural influences on meaning-making were explored and compared in the analysis of involvement and humour in the two different settings.
The increasing frequency of international and intercultural communication has made English a top priority foreign language taught in Vietnam. Given that culture is inseparable from English language teaching, especially in the landscape of English as an international language (EIL), English teaching materials should integrate and reflect culture teaching perspectives under the EIL paradigm. The present study aimed at examining the extent to which the cultural contents in six English textbooks for the upper secondary level in Vietnam correspond with the EIL paradigm. A content analysis of these textbooks was conducted. The findings reveal signs of EIL paradigm influence in the set of investigated English textbooks. Firstly, the source culture and the international target culture appeared more frequently than the target culture. Secondly, the international target culture covered a diversity of cultures in the world with a noticeable emphasis on ASEAN countries. The interactional culture which is used to examine the reflection of source culture on other cultures is also found in a relatively large number of units. Finally, the global culture is presented throughout the set of textbooks as topics of units.
Cultural contents, English as an international language, textbook analysis
The central objective of the study is to address the following question: what are the perceptions of students and their teachers about the impact of using online English language learning activities on students academic achievement in the Preparatory Year Programme at Imam Abdulrahamn bin Faisal University? The study combines both qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data about these perceptions. The main instruments were students and teachers questionnaires and interviews, and classroom observations. In total, 1696 students and 52 teachers completed the questionnaires, 16 students and 6 teachers participated in the interviews and 16 e-learning classes were observed. The findings indicated that online English language learning activities enabled students to practice independently outside classrooms, which in turn was perceived to have a positive impact on academic achievement. Furthermore, participants believed that online learning promoted the development of vocabulary, listening and grammar skills. Also, online learning activities were seen to increase students readiness to move to the next level of study.
Academic achievement, e-learning, English language, online learning activities, preparatory year programme
The increasing womans participation in the labor force has an impact on their allocation of time. The National Socio-economic Survey in Indonesia shows that overall, household expenditures on food away from home have increased. One of the hypotheses of this study is that working women choose to buy food rather than to cook to be more efficient and to save time. This study aimed to analyze the effects of working women on expenditures on food away from home in Indonesia using the data from the Susenas Consumption and Expenditures Module 2016. The result of the Tobit regression shows that a working mother gave significant effect on a households expenditures on food away from home where households with full-time working women had higher expenditures on food away from home than those with women working part-time or not working at all. The result of this study is expected to complement the consumption study on food away from home in Indonesia.
Expenditure, food away from home, Indonesia, women, work status
In this study, we found that Structural Assurances had positive and significant direct effect on guanxi formation and it had positive and significant indirect effect toward customer loyalty behavior. We also found the facts that e-WoM had a positive and significant direct effect on guanxi formation. Where e-WoM at once had a positive and significant indirect impact on the occurrence of behavioral customer loyalty. In the end, the results of this study indicated that guanxi positively and significantly influenced the occurrence of customer loyalty behavioral when conducting E-Commerce transactions in Indonesia.
The research aimed to determine the application of e-learning at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in response to the analysis of the marketing mix elements, notably product, price, promotion, location, learning processes, people, and physical evidence. At the same time, it was necessary to determine the brand equity elements (brand loyalty, brand image, and perceived quality) and the effect of the marketing mix on brand equity in higher education that implement e-learning, particularly in BINUS Online Learning Jakarta. In order to address the notion, a quantitative approach based on Associative Descriptive Method was adopted. The data collection involved questionnaire instrument to 116 college students of BINUS Online Learning as the target population by undertaking simple random sampling. On that basis, data analysis, using Partial Least Square (PLS), explored SEM-analysis techniques. Evidence derived from the study showed that elements of people, process, and product typified powerful elements of the marketing mix variable. The elements of brand loyalty and perceived quality configured the variable of brand equity. Accordingly, the study highlighted a strong, positive and significant effect of the marketing mix on brand equity.
In marketing terms, the phenomenon of a price wars is regarded as the result of intense competition and retaliatory reaction in order to win market share. However, several literatures had acknowledged that this condition was the result of an abnormal internal condition, where firms competed not to engage in competitive selling activities but rather as an effort to maintain performance. This paper was written and prepared as part of a recent study in the Indonesian lighting industry, where many players in the industry considered themselves caught in a severe price war condition. Based on a qualitative survey using open-ended interviews of seven lighting companies in Indonesia, the study found that the industry regard price wars as the result of severe intra-brand competition and an effort to maintain the status quo of continuous growth. Propositions to ease friction in price were suggested: exploration to other market segments; exploiting information to induce loyalty; understanding rivalry through capacity size; and management of short-term performance constraints.
This paper introduces a framework using ICT to transform smallholder farmers traditional business towards agribusiness in Malaysia by extending the existing theoretical framework. The introduction of agribusiness to the farmers is not well understood and difficult to implement due to their limitations as smallholder farmers. The framework outlining ICT usage which was improved through identifying major factors affecting agribusiness transformation by using ICT such as environment (ENV), technology (TECH), farm work design (FWD), and information system elements (ISE). This paper focuses on testing relationships between ENV and TECH which acting as independent variables (IVs) towards agribusiness transformation using ICT as dependent variable (DV). The moderation effect of ISE and FWD acting as moderation variables (ModVs) which interacted with TECH towards agribusiness transformation using ICT were also being investigated in this paper by using slope analysis. This research used a quantitative approach to explore the nature of the phenomenon through the underpinned theory available in information systems theories such as technology-organisation-environment (TOE), technology acceptance model (TAM), diffusion of innovation (DOI), and task-technology fit (TTF). The method chosen in this research was questionnaire, which was distributed to more than 209 smallholder farmers in Taman Kekal Pengeluaran Makanan (TKPM) in Selangor. The statistical results provided the researcher the opportunity to outline the ICT usage framework to be used to transform smallholder farmers traditional business towards technological intensive agribusiness. Overall, the findings outline the low level of information system elements and farm work design influencing the technological effect towards agribusiness transformation using ICT.
Productivity measures are the foremost indicators of the performance of an economy, i.e., how efficiently resources are used to generate outputs and income. They provide warning signs and also give feedback to help the government take required measures to improve its performance. In the public sector, it is difficult to measure the output as services provided do not have a price which would indicate their value to the community. Outputs, such as education services, are provided free or at a subsidized price. One of the public sectors in Indonesia which is very important to be measured for its productivity is public schooling. This study is one of the first efforts in looking at the feasibility of constructing productivity measures for Indonesian public schools. The method and model used in measuring Public School productivity is modified. Data used are secondary data available from several government sources. The study has been positive and has produced some interesting and meaningful results. Public school productivity in Indonesia has improved overall since 2011 and the improvement is getting better still, since 2014. But these improvements are not enough and are still lagging behind several ASEAN countries. The policies and programs need to be analyzed and evaluated in such a way that there is improvement in the overall education productivity and education quality. It is important that measures will be improved by involving stakeholders in the productivity measurement study.
Goods and services, government policies, inputs, productivity measures outputs, public sector outputs, resources
People are one of the most strategic assets for an organization, hence when they are managed well, they will be the source of an organizations competitive advantage, and the organization that can manage and produce continual innovation will maintain its competitive edge. The number of corporate universities has substantially increased since the 90s, and some researchers have noted that corporate universities can be a related to production of innovation. Knowledge management somehow plays an important role in managing new and existing knowledge gained from a learning activity. Bina Nusantara (BINUS) a leading organization in education business, is currently known as the only entity that has implemented a corporate university in Indonesia. This research will analyze the role of the corporate university program in building innovation capability through knowledge management; however, only limited related research has conducted empirically. Using the SEM PLS analysis method, research is conducted through the Best Employee of BINUS program which considers a Best Employee an organizations representative who guarantees the continuity of the a corporate university program, and its organizational capability via knowledge management.
A corporate university, innovation capability, knowledge management
There are limited psychometric instruments that measure intercultural competence in teacher education programmes. Empirical studies that examine the psychometric properties of these instruments are scarce, thus the authors set about to develop the Intercultural Competence in Teacher Education Questionnaire (ICTE-Q). This paper reports the findings on the psychometric properties of the ICTE-Q. Sixty pre-service teachers in their third or final year of study were sampled purposively from three Higher Education Institutions in Malaysia. The data were analysed using the Rasch Model technique to validate the ICTE-Q. The analyses covered properties such as Category Fit, Item Polarity, Item Fit, and Person and Item Reliability. Data obtained from the study was successful in validating the ICTE-Q to be employed to measure the intercultural competence component of teacher education programmes in preparing pre-service teachers to teach in culturally diverse settings. Polarity Analysis for items towards a construct from the positive Point Measure Correlation (PTMEA Corr) value showed that items in the construct were functioning in the same direction to measure the developed construct. The results of polarity analysis were used to triangulate the item fit result which was considered acceptable to fit the Rasch model framework. For the Category Measure, the measurement functioning was as expected. Finally, both person and item reliability indices were found to be high. It thus can be concluded that the ICTE-Q is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used to measure the intercultural competence component of teacher education programmes.
This article aims to examine the implementation of a multi-method approach in the vocational engineering learning process through a Lesson Study to develop higher order thinking skills (HOTS) for pre-service teachers. This is a multiphase mixed methods design which included a series of Lesson Study activities. In the implementation phase, the multi-method learning was started through self-directed learning, followed by collaborative problem-solving by using a mixture of several techniques. The last phase was a summarization session. The results of this study indicate that a multi-method approach has the potential to develop pre-service teachers HOTS.
The Researcher Links Workshop was designed on how to innovate higher education to enhance graduate employability. A total of 34 early career researchers consisted of 20, 13, and one from Thailand, United Kingdom, and Vietnam respectively was selected as workshop participants. Researcher employed focus-group interview as a means of qualitative data collection amongst participants. These participants came to share and discuss scientifically what should be done to secure win-win solutions for improving the quality of higher education, increasing graduates employability, and boosting the economy. The 34 participants were identified as influential change agents in transforming their teaching, learning environments, and research that reflecting on their pedagogical practice in working with students and industries. Thematic analysis was used to analyze individual data, as well as focus-group data. Since the workshop was planned to achieve the main aims including forming networking, knowledge transfer and change, research skills development as well as spreading effects related to innovative research, teaching, and industrial links, a study was carried out to measure the impacts from this workshop. The results revealed that there were five different mechanisms by which to enhance graduate employability, namely employers involvement in course design; using technology to enhance employability; preparing graduates to apply theory in practice, educational challenges to the global manufacturing industry, and soft skills development to enhance employability. In conclusion, the results contribute significantly to knowledge with regard to the development of the employability agenda in practice.
The study aims to analyze problems faced by pesantren (Islamic boarding schools in Indonesia) in the Post-Reform Indonesia by employing a historical-critical analysis approach. By relying on the related literature, the writer focuses on some serious problems faced by pesantren today, i.e. the emergence of a number of rigid religious expressions contrary to democratic values and the culture of pesantren. As argued in this paper, pesantren fundamentally has values inherent in the democratic society. From a historical perspective, pesantren since its inception has demonstrated the nature of tolerance by accepting diversity of the community. The pesantrens moderation culture should be managed properly in order to create an understanding for mutual respect in a pluralistic society. At this point, pesantren as a tool to ignite social engineering needs to do a reformulation of its education system to form a democratic and civilized Muslim society.
Most literature on the effect of family and parenthood for gendered academic career and the continuous underrepresentation of female academic staff among senior academics demonstrates similar findings. Commitments such as family and child rearing have been identified as an obstacle to academic career advancement for women, though far less so for men. This article argues that women in academic careers in Indonesia accept double burden of working as lecturers and doing their domestic works voluntarily to balance practicing their religious principles, societal norms and commitment for their career as their aspiration for modern life. Using in-depth interviews of 15 female academics from two universities in Jakarta, this study finds that women in academia have accepted the co-existence of motherhood and academic careers. An academic career is considered the best profession that enables women to play their dual roles as professionals and mothers.
Academic career, gender gap, motherhood, religious values
Men are sometimes treated as higher than women, and mens qualities are also sometimes promoted as being superior to those of women. This stereotype can be assumed to affect how women view themselves when they assume a leadership role. This study aims to investigate the role of gender identity, importance of identity and patriarchal belief on identity conflict on women leaders. An online survey was conducted in two stages to reduce common method bias, with the final stage involving 163 women leaders. The reliability of the instruments ranged from 0.81 to 0.89, indicating high consistency in their measurement of constructs. It was found that (1) positive gender identity is negatively related to identity conflict for women leaders and (2) patriarchal belief is positively related to identity conflict among women leaders. No relationship was identified between the importance of gender identity and womanâ€“leader identity conflict. This paper contributes to current debates on women leaders by demonstrating that women who identify positively with their gender will not experience identity conflict in their role as leader; instead, identity conflict for women leaders arises through externally induced patriarchal belief.
Gender, identity conflict, Indonesia, leadership, patriarchal belief
Dining is a fundamental biological need which serves as a social function for binding people in a society. It is a human sociality that people eat together; however, it could turn to be very complex in a multi-religious society where people have different dietary requirements prescribed by their religions. Limited studies reveal halal dining practices and its influence on social cohesion in a multi-religious society. In this study, we investigated and explored how Muslims uphold their religious commitment of halal dining within the inter-religious context and how non-Muslims perceive halal dining and participate in this commensality. This study aims to explore the behavioral patterns of halal dining experiences among urban millennials in a multi-religious societal context. The study was undertaken to measure the influence of halal dining experience on the socialization process between Muslims and non-Muslims which may affect the condition of social cohesion among them. This study also attempts to explore the inclusiveness of halal diners and their interactions. Adopting a qualitative approach, interviews were conducted among Muslims and non- Muslims urbanite millennials residing in Klang Valley. This study finds that dining dissimilarities challenge aspects of multi-religiosity but do not cause a major disruption in building a cohesive society. Thus, the issue that comes to fore is the manner in which people positively or negatively deal with their differences during commensality. The outcome of this research aspires to serve as a reflection of halal dining experience in a multi-religious society towards building a cohesive and united society.
Halal dining, multi-religious society, social cohesion
Most students in the universities at present are considered millennials. Typically, this generational cohort is born from 1981 onwards. Considering their behavioral temperament, they are accused of being entitled and deficient in motivation and accountability. Further, other generations perceive millennials as having less desirable work behaviors and beliefs. At present, there is a dearth of scholarship on Filipino millennials and their experience of burnout. The present inquiry determined the extent to which Filipino millennial university students experienced burnout and how it was possibly inflected by gender or academic specialization. Additionally, academic achievement and workload were considered factors in the experience of burnout. The Maslach Burnout Inventory − Student Survey was utilized in this study with 249 respondents from a private university in Manila, Philippines. Results reveal that workload is positively correlated to exhaustion and, to some extent, cynicism. Likewise, academic achievement positively influences academic efficacy, which buffers the experience of exhaustion and cynicism. Regardless of gender and academic specialization, Filipino millennial university students seem not to be experiencing burnout. The analysis further shows that the respondents academic efficacy is moderately high. On the other hand, exhaustion and cynicism range from moderately low to average.
Academic achievement, academic efficacy, burnout, exhaustion, cynicism, millennials, university students
Good governance is a crucial issue in the performance of zakat institutions, as zakat institutions are non-profit public organizations that are trusted by the community. In Indonesia, the huge potential of securing zakat funds by zakat institutions is currently not optimized due to the lack of public trust. By utilizing a Confirmatory Factor Analysis model, this research aimed to examine dimensions of the principles of good governance namely, transparency, accountability, responsibility, independence and fairness practiced among zakat institutions. Data was obtained from interviews with leaders and staff of zakat institutions in Indonesia. Findings of the study suggest that the dimension of transparency contributed most to good governance followed by accountability, responsibility, and independence. It can be concluded that good governance in zakat institutions has been well implemented only in some aspects but not in totality. This research could be used to create guidelines on zakat management governance while serving as a reference for formulating policies related to the standardization of good governance in zakat institutions.
Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), good governance, performance, zakat institutions
The new financial model that provides monetary investment on savings arrangement financing is beginning to grow in Indonesia, especially in incentivizing energy efficiency. The split incentive problem identified in Indonesia shows that the currently designed program of incentives is still problematic for both providers and customers. This suggests that there are multiple alternatives to the incentives that are more suitable to assist in energy-efficiency implementation. Using case studies on retrofit financing for LED lamps in Indonesia, this study aimed to test the validity of those issues, which involved the process of energy decision-making within an organization. Triangulating the findings from case studies and questionnaire surveys, recommendations for future researchers, practitioners, and the government were made. The results indicated that retrofit financing in Indonesia is feasible. Financial metrics such as the analysis of discounted payback period, IRR, and NPV were used to further validate the result. The study also identified that the provider can use Game Theory as a tool to analyze the costs and benefits of retrofit business decisions to tackle the split incentive problems. These findings could lead to improvement in strategies in considering the effectiveness of a firms policy measures for delivering energy efficiency in the future.
ESA & ESPC, game theory, LCC, retrofit, split incentive problem
Independent smallholders represent more than 3.1 million hectares of all palm oil plantations in Indonesia. However, they receive inadequate attention from sustainability initiatives, deforestation and palm oil production discussions. Meanwhile, evidences show that by collaborating voluntarily in organizations and building linkages with public and private stakeholders among institutional arrangements, farmers have opportunities to access productive assets for expanding their capacities, to seize economic changes, and policy making. Thus, the research answers the key point relationships of the organization of smallholders to meet sustainable certification system. The analysis was conducted in three districts by using structural equation models. The study indicates that there was, directly and indirectly, an effect of the farmers organization for achieving sustainability. However, none of independent smallholders in the analysis site participated in the farmers organization. The farmers organization is also proven to have a positive effect on the legality and a positive indirect effect on the sustainability through the legality. In the farmers organization, providing information to relevant stakeholders is in line with the applicable provisions, except on the confidential subject which is important for sustainability. The most important aspect with regard to the legality is the stakeholders agreement on management and monitoring of the environment.
Consumer protection against resellers infringing intellectual property (IP) is not guaranteed based on Consumer Protection Act No. 8 of 1999 because it is argued that it is already regulated under IP laws, such as patent, trademark, and copyright laws, prohibiting the production or sale of products infringing IP law. However, because the nature of IP is to protect private rights, how can trademarks protect consumers? This paper analyzes trademark theories and the Trademarks Act No. 20 of 2016 to establish whether trademarks protect consumers. This research concludes that most scholars use utilitarian and economic theories, supporting that trademarks protect consumers by balancing the trademark holders economic right with the interests of the public as consumers. However, Trademarks Act No. 20 provides very limited protection with only legal, philosophical arguments. Further protection is limited to simply safeguarding consumers from being misled or deceived by stipulation that a potential trademark is distinctive and not registered in bad faith. It neither provides any legal instrument for consumers injured or having suffered any loss nor allows consumers to report counterfeit goods or be reimbursed for loss or injury from buying those goods. Therefore, protecting customers is not the Indonesian trademark laws primary objective.
Counterfeit products, Indonesian trademark law, Intellectual property law
Little research has been undertaken that focuses on valuable objects from shipwrecks, especially regarding public policy and potential non-tax state revenue from these artifacts. Due to difficulties of implementation of the valuable object from shipwreck policy, in 2011, the Indonesian government issued a moratorium on survey permits and the retrieval of sunken artifacts. This research used a post-positivist approach to collect data through in-depth interviews and the analysis of documents and literature. It was found that the moratorium, which was intended to provide time for the government to manage the valuable objects from shipwrecks, was unable to meet its purpose. Instead, the moratorium had incurred opportunity costs, including the loss of both material and intangible value. Of those opportunity costs, the most significant loss was potential non-tax state revenue to treasury from auctions of shipwreck treasure. During the moratorium, cases of theft and the unlawful retrieval of sunken artifacts had steadily increased. Further, the state also lost the opportunity to preserve history and create learning materials for future generations.
Cultural heritage, opportunity cost, policy impact, shipwrecks
In the study of ijtihad, there is often confusion over the implementation of maslahah (human welfare) by Islamic law observers when they face new social problems. It is too easy to set a law based on maslahah regardless of what maslahah actually is. The present paper reviews the concept of maslahah and sheds light on differences and similarities of the way in which it is conceptualised in the related literature. The literature included the Quran, Hadith, usul fiqh, al- Ihkam fi usul al-ahkam as well as a number of important related sources. Qualitative methods were used to analyse the literature and synthesise the concepts based on the objectives of the present research and the authors interpretations.
Islamic law, Maslahah, method of law, purpose of law
Depressive symptomatology is a serious mental health problem that has been observed among Malaysian adolescents. Hence, we conducted a cross-sectional study to identify the risk and protective factors for adolescent depressive symptoms. Specifically, we hypothesized that stressful life events, parental verbal aggression, and parental warmth are significantly associated with adolescent depressive symptoms. A sample of 1092 adolescents (13-19 years old; 447 boys and 645 girls) was recruited using probability proportional to size cluster sampling from 20 secondary schools in four states across Malaysia. Results of the multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that stressful life events and maternal verbal aggression had significant main effects on depressive symptoms. In the moderation analyses, paternal warmth alleviated the influence of paternal verbal aggression on depressive symptoms. In contrast, both paternal and maternal warmth exacerbated the depressogenic impact of maternal verbal aggression. Such findings could improve prevention and intervention programs for combatting depressive symptoms in Malaysian adolescents.
Premarital sexual compliance is common among women and is influenced by gender role socialization. Sexual assertiveness reduces the likelihood of engaging in sexual compliance. This study examined the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral intervention in enhancing sexual assertiveness in women who exhibited sexual compliance. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted with a pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design. Each group consisted of five participants recruited through purposive sampling. Participants in the intervention group participated in five individual sessions, preceded by a pre-session and followed by a follow-up session. The participants in the control group were given a psychoeducation book to read and had no face-to-face sessions. Analysis was conducted through the comparison of quantitative data measured by the Indonesian version of the Sexual Assertiveness Questionnaire for Women (SAQ-W) scale. Participants changes in cognition and behavior before and after the intervention were also observed. It was found that cognitive-behavioral intervention successfully enhanced sexual assertiveness in women who exhibited sexual compliance. Participants in the intervention group were able to identify what they wanted and did not want in sexual situations, modify maladaptive thoughts leading to unassertive behaviors, and apply behavioral techniques to facilitate the occurrence of assertive behavior in sexual contexts.
Cognitive-behavioral intervention, sexual assertiveness, sexual compliance
This study examines harmonious and obsessive passions as underlying psychological processes influencing the effects of task significance on performance. Using self-determination theory to account for the mediation effect, we argue that the relationship between task significance and employee performance is indirect, and harmonious and obsessive passion play a significant role as mediators. The data were collected from healthcare workers at an Indonesian government organization (N = 434) and were analyzed using the Hayes PROCESS macro. The results showed that task significance was positively and significantly correlated with harmonious passion and obsessive passion. Harmonious passion was positively and significantly correlated with performance, but obsessive passion was not correlated with performance. Furthermore, harmonious passion fully mediated the effect of task significance on performance, but obsessive passion did not mediate this relationship. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Positive abnormal audit fee decreases audit quality. A high abnormal audit fee reduces audit quality because it interferes with the auditors independence and objectivity. In addition, high audit fee allows a creation of economic bonding between auditors and clients. Likewise, a negative abnormal audit fee also decreases audit quality. This is because the auditor adjusts his/her audit effort and procedures according to the fee paid by his/her client. This study examines the effect of an abnormal audit fees on audit opinion and audit quality in five ASEAN countries which are Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. The sample comprises companies listed on the stock exchanges in the five countries between 2010 and 2014. The regression result shows that a positive abnormal audit fee does not have a significant effect on the probability of a company to get an unqualified audit opinion. These results indicate that there is no opinion shopping.
Unlike the previous defined benefit pension scheme in Nigeria, the current contributory pension scheme (CPS) is characterised by separation of ownership and management of pension fund. In view of agency problem this portends, the need to empirically examine corporate governance (CG) practices of operators is of importance for CPS survival. Thus, this study examines corporate governance practices of operators of CPS in management and custody of the CPS fund. Survey data from 212 managers and assistant managers of CPS operators were analysed using one-sample t-test and mixed ANOVA. The results showed significant practices of CG mechanisms in the form of board independence, director independence, board disclosure and audit committee effectiveness. Significant difference was found in practice of above CG mechanisms. However, there was no significant difference in GC practices among various types of CPS operators. Similarly, the interaction of CG mechanisms with CPS operator type was also found to be insignificant. Based on the results, good corporate governance practices in the management of CPS fund is evident. However, it is recommended that there is an urgent need to intensify regulatory role of the part of CPS regulator- National Pension Commission to ensure that operators are not lacking behind in practices of various mechanisms of CG.
This study explores the endeavors of the embroidery industry communities in Kudus Regency, Central Java, Indonesia, to endorse the existence of their craft industries and craft identities. The work ethics of Kudus embroidery artisans are unique. The significant marks of the uniqueness include: maintaining the traditional embroidery technique, the traditional embroidery designs, and the community-based cooperative management. Based on this research, the researchers argue that the embroidery craft industries in Kudus have become an economic asset of Kudus Regency in the sector of creative industries as well as having served as a cultural identity, which is also very important to strengthen the Indonesian national identity.
This article discusses the relationship between the state and the performing arts in the transmission of political messages. During the New Order period in Indonesia, the traditional shadow puppet theater genre known as wayang played a significant role as a medium of communication between the government and society. We specifically claim that wayang, especially wayang kulit, were used by the government to carry messages of social and economic development during this period. These messages were incorporated into plays or scenes when it was possible without diminishing the standard of wayang performance. In contrast to previous studies that have discussed the role of wayang from a philosophical and semiotic perspective, this study will focus on the history of wayang kulit as a means of spreading messages of development in Java during the New Order era. This study finds that the relations between the society, the dalang, and the government generate the wayang art as a medium of propaganda, especially the economic development agenda in the New Order period. The data in this article were obtained through literature studies and from several documents of the period between 1969 and 1984.
Art during the New Order era, cultural history, Javanese, wayang art
The issue of ethics in representation of others is a new direction in studies about representations. Although all claims to the authenticity of representations have lost their validity, especially after the poststructuralist intervention, it is still theoretically deemed possible to think of representations of others which show some measures of ethicality. The present article argues that Camilla Gibbs novel, Sweetness in the Belly, in which the Canadian non-Muslim Gibb represents the Muslim people of Ethiopia is one such representation. The article, mainly drawing on theories of representation, maintains that the novels conditions of production and reception make it an example of a representation of others that strives toward ethicality. It is then suggested that although Gibbs text does not totally escape the embodiment of some colonial discourses, it can still, to a great extent, be considered an ethical representation of others due to some evidence, including the professed intention of the author, some narrative strategies in the text, the authors awareness of discourses of power, implied in the novel, and finally the reception of the novel by the readers and critics, which further manifests its success in combating the stereotypical images of its objects of representation, the Muslim people of Harar.
Authenticity, colonial discourses, ethics, hybridity, realist fiction, representation of others, Sweetness in the Belly
This study aims to identify the similarities and differences between the functions of imperative sentences of English and Javanese languages. The contrastive analysis used as the research method to compare the two different languages. Based on the analysis, in the English imperative sentence, there are seven functions which are a command, prohibition, invitation, request, advice, suggestion, and compulsion. While, in the Javanese imperative sentence, it has nine functions, which are a command, prohibition, invitation, request, advice, suggestion, compulsion, panantang, and pangece.
Contrastive analysis, English imperatives, Javanese imperatives
Internal water is a concept of maritime zone priory recognized at the early development of sovereign territories at sea. The concept of sovereignty in internal waters is similar to the concept of sovereignty on the land that archipelagic states have full sovereignty over their archipelagic waters. There are no other states rights in such water zone. Unlike the case with other sovereignties, such as archipelagic waters (even though it is equally sovereign in these waters), other states have rights such as the right of innocent passage, the right to lay submarine cables, traditional fishing right and other noted rights. For such mandated reasons, it is essential for an archipelagic state such as Indonesia, which has 17,508 islands, to quickly assign internal waters delimitation in all islands to control of violation such as smuggling, trafficking, illegal fishing, so forth. Delimitation is important considering the position of internal waters within the archipelagic waters area, thus it requires the delimitation of internal waters to separate internal waters from archipelagic waters. This is important with regard to prevent overlapping and violation of the archipelagic states full sovereignty in its inland waters.
The changing of Asian immigrant workers, such as, Burmese, Lao, and Cambodian who are hard working in Thailand, is rapid. It leads to poor mental health which increases a need for public health administration because accessing mental health information after ASEAN communitys policy is difficulties and burden. The objective of this study was to analyze a path model of mental health service utilization among Asian immigrant workers after ASEAN communitys policy. This methodology was used by a cross-sectional survey with Asian immigrant workers such as, Burmese, Lao, and Cambodian in 2017. Instruments used general characteristics, public health administration, the need for mental health care, and mental health status related into mental health service utilization. A path model for mental health service utilization among Asian immigrant workers were analyzed by using path model. Results from this study showed that every causal factor had a direct effect on mental health service utilization. But public health administration among this groups following the ASEAN community policy had the most direct effect on mental health service utilization. Its standardized regression weight of 0.479 (p-value < 0.01). R square of mental health service utilization was 0.308. This study displayed that public health administration was the most important factor associated with mental health service utilization among Asian immigrant workers following the ASEAN community policy. This recommendation should be using qualitative methods for the next study among Asian immigrant workers.
A path model, ASEAN communitys policy, Asian immigrant workers, Mental health service utilization
This research was driven by the fact that Shia presence and its involvement in sectarianism conflict in Indonesia had received little research attention. The research examines the ways in which this conflict is conceptualized within court decisions. The aim of this paper is to analyze the motives and the impact of the sectarian conflict in Madura 2011-2012, which was caused by allegations of religious wrongdoings. Although it can be interpreted that individual and group beliefs, along with their religious denominations are private rights, in Indonesian law, different religious denominations can be brought before the law and found to be committing serious offenses. This may arouse suspicion, inter-group tension, persecution, and social violence. In this socio-legal case study, data were collected using interviews and documentation. Analyzing the trial process of the case allows us to conclude that the Public Court announced Shia teachings as the source of conflict. The court found the perpetrators guilty of blasphemy for teaching a doctrine which is different from the common Sunni belief. The conclusion is that the state is still weak in safeguarding and protecting the basic rights of religious minorities.
Relations among believers of different religions are often characterized by conflict and disharmony. The interreligious conflict and disharmony are not in line with the doctrine and religious mission itself, which on the contrary promote peace and harmony. If the undesirable opposite happens, it means there is a gap between the normative teachings with the empirical reality. Why does that happen? This article reveals the issues related to the Christian-Muslim relations in Indonesia over a period of time along with the factors underlying the disharmony of Christian-Muslim relations in Indonesia. The method used to analyze this problem was the historical-sociological approach. This study concludes that the Christian-Muslim conflict in Indonesia is triggered by external rather than (internal) problems such as political and economic issues as well as the shalow understanding of the believers themselves.
Universal Design (UD), a term coined by Ronald L. Mace is a concept of equality of use of space, built environment and products irrespective of the limitations and disabilities users may have. The concept is founded on eradicating the discrimination, marginalization and social disengagement of the disabled. In addition to those born with disability, and those who have become disabled because of mishaps, a more disconcerting situation is the demographic change caused by a steadily growing aged population across nations. The elderly, as with other disabled populace, find it difficult to complete even their routine daily tasks due to diminished accessibility. The goal of this paper is to assess the awareness of UD amongst students pursuing interior design in the U.A.E. Since most of the academic institutions in the region are run either by the American, Canadian or British Universities, this work will be able to reflect on the importance such universities give to UD in their curriculum. Healthcare and social engagement of the disabled is the main concern, hence. Providing avenues for the disabled implies creating universally accessible and usable built environments and products. Designers need to be cognizant of the relevance of UD as an integral part of their profession. Such awareness requires that the values and concept of UD be taught during the formative years in the schools and colleges. More specifically the designers of built environment â€“ the Architects and the Interior designers should take concerted efforts to understand and implement the philosophy of UD.
The Gibrats Law of Proportionate Effects (LPE) of 1931 states that a firms size is irrelevant to its organic growth. This study tests this law in the Nigerian life insurance industry for the period of 2007-2014, sub-divided into 2007-2010 and 2011-2014; and on composite and life specialist insurers to account for both the time-varying and structural effects for the testing period. Additionally, it examines other determinants of firm growth in the industry. Using panel unit root test and generalized methods of moment (GMM) regression techniques, the study found that Gibrats law does not hold in the entire industry and sub-samples over the entire period and the sub-periods. The results further indicate that smaller life insurers grow faster than bigger ones. In addition, while a firms profitability has a positive association with its growth, age and reinsurance do not determine life insurers growth in Nigeria. These findings provide further valuable insight on the determinants of life insurers organic growth and the applicability of LPE in the financial service sector of developing economies. A paradigm shift from one-cap-fits-all regulatory approach to more proactive policy measures aimed at spurring older firms growth is recommended for accelerated growth and deeper penetration of the life insurance industry in Nigeria.
Firm size, firm growth, Gibrats law, life insurers, Nigeria
This article is aimed at discussing the programs which seek to deradicalize and strengthen civic values among the youth. The approach adopted in this present article is an analysis of ideology criticism philosophy. This analysis is used to study the aforesaid programs which are implemented by educational institutions in Indonesia. Ideology criticism is used to free our knowledge from either implicit or explicit ideological interest. Using the ideology criticism, we can understand the background of the emergence of radicalism with all forms of its expressions. We may also analyze all forms of expressions of resistances to radicalism ideology through deradicalization programs. This article concludes that the most important step to take in the process of deradicalization is to understand the characters and ideologies of radicalism and terrorism movements. This step is important because when incidences of radicalism and terrorism often happen in Indonesia, the actors of radicalism and terrorism are arrested or killed. Radicalism at present has become an ideology that has been growing and developing among its adherents. By understanding the characters and ideology of radicalism movements, the programs of deradicalization and civic values strengthening among the youth through the educational institution becomes more effective. What is also important to note is that such programs should be conducted dialogically and humanly. Cross-cultural dialogues should involve believers from various religions.
Civic values, deradicalization, ideology criticism, the youth
The true reason for migration is to seek for a better life. People who choose to migrate are motivated by economic intentions and the pursuit of well-being. Many research studies investigate the impact of migration focus on migrant workers only, not include the whole of migrants. This study aims to analyze whether migration has an impact on well-being in Indonesia, using both objective and subjective measurements. The sample unit of study is a person who was 22 years old or over in 2014, using longitudinal data of the Indonesian Family Life Survey. Objective well-being is measured by real per capita expenditures that reflect the differences in purchasing power in 2007 and 2014, while the subjective well-being is a self-rated assessment index of life satisfaction. The analytical method used is the logistics of panel data. The results show that migration significantly and positively affects well-being in Indonesia. It can be concluded that subjectively, migrants tend to have better well-being, and objectively, their purchasing power tends to be higher than that of non-migrants.
IFLS, Indonesia, migration, objective well-being, subjective well-being
Rowing involves cyclic motions that have a number of similar repetitions of joint excursion. Similar movement patterns, physiological, muscular activity and biomechanical aspects were observed while rowing on dynamic ergometer and on water. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the changes of lower limb kinematics during 2000m rowing on dynamic ergometer among male junior national rowers. Ten male junior national-level rowers participated in the study. 24 passive reflective markers were attached on their lower extremity and their rowing motions were captured. Each phases of rowing cycle was interpolated to 100 time points separately. The lower limb joint kinematics were compared across every 500m sections to evaluate its changes during 2000m rowing trial. There was a statistically significant difference between stroke rates for every 500m of 2000m rowing trial as determined by one-way ANOVA (F(3,36) = 4.880, p = 0.006). Kinematical variabilities were observed across splits particularly in frontal and transverse planes of lower limb joints.