Thailand's transformation from absolute monarchy in 1932 to military dictatorship in 2017 has witnessed 13 successful coups d'état across 84 years. The Thai military (as supported by aristocracy) is a principal obstacle to achieving lasting democracy. Examples of its anti-democratic behaviour include its crushing of protesters in 1973, 1976, 1992 and 2010. The latest putsch in 2014 has resulted in systematic intimidation and repression of political opponents, with Thailand descending into "military bureaucratic authoritarianism." Since the military is such a strong barrier to democratisation, the next democratically elected government must undertake military reforms as its first priority. Such reforms must include demobilisation, downsizing, conscription reduction, military budget reduction, abolishment of martial law, audits of the military budget, changes in legislation to severely punish military coup-leaders by eliminating the pattern of amnesties and immunities and reform of military-dominated agencies. The study suggests that if comprehensive military reform is allowed to take off, it may bring the military under civilian control, creating professionalism, preventing the situation of a (military) state within a state and strengthening civilian supremacy. If this can be achieved then democratisation and sustainable reconciliation will have opportunities to flourish.
This review paper is concerned with two bodies of knowledge in particular, evaluation and conservation. Generally, evaluation is a popular management tool for both public and private sectors because of its useful purposes in improving organisations and programme interventions, investigating oversight and compliance, assessing merit and worth, as well as nurturing knowledge. Being practised in various programmes such as health, education, business and community, evaluation is still uncommon in the general conservation domain, specifically in the realm of built heritage conservation. Due to the scantiness of available literature pertinent to conservation evaluation, this paper provides an update to the literature body by reviewing and discussing the general theories of evaluation, followed by a highlight on gaps of conservation evaluation in relation to built heritage. Finally, a special annotation on the absence of evaluation in the current Malaysian Built Heritage Conservation Framework (BHCF) is made in the quest of shifting Malaysian conservation best practice to a new standard.
Built heritage, conservation, evaluation, Malaysia, management
Psychosocial risks and work-related stress are global problems and there is a limited research over such problems in developing countries. This study investigates these risks in Malaysian public health perspective by using biomarkers in relation to the workers' health and well-being. Biomarkers can be used to objectively measure the physiological response to psychosocial stressors. This study will be helpful to address the complex contemporary issues that emerge because of continuous change in the work environment. Non-proportional stratified random sampling technique was used for data collection and analysis would be done with the help of AMOS 21.0 in Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to achieve range of outcomes.
Biomarker, Malaysia, psychosocial work environment, Structure Equation Modeling (SEM), work-related stress
The article aims to analyze how and to what extent women are strengthened by participating in self -help groups and the resultant establishment of networks and trust. Findings of the article revealed that as long as women are involved in self-help groups, a good level of trust and networking is developed among them. Moreover, self-help groups work as a platform for women to discuss and debate various socio-cultural issues. The article is based on both primary and secondary data and concludes with some interesting findings that suggest that women, who have become empowered, benefit from their bridging social networks that began from these self-help networks and subsequently.
Women's empowerment, networks, self-help group, trust, co-operation, social capital
Learning is a social process, where a learner's cognitive processes occur within social events that transpire when an individual interacts with people, objects and events in his or her culture and environment. This qualitative study of a small scale is grounded in the Socio Cultural Theory which postulates learning to be a social enterprise and supported by cultural tools which aid learning. The study was undertaken on a group of Malay tertiary learners to probe how far social sources, namely peers, impact their learning of vocabulary items in their preparation for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET). Besides social sources, the use of cultural tools, (namely, the dictionary and guessing meaning from context) were also probed to enquire how learners capitalise on these resources to make their learning process meaningful and to encourage autonomous learning. Data for the case study were collected through qualitative means of retrospective interviews and journal entries of the participants. The study found that cultural tools such as the dictionary and guessing meaning from context are useful sources for learning. Peers, as social sources, also play a significant role in improving the learners' affective states, since tasks carried out in groups are valued and held in importance, in accordance with the Malay cultural trait which emphasises group work and communal activities.
Autonomy, peers, cultural tools, dictionary, learning behaviours
This paper aims to develop a process model that can be implemented in business schools by focussing on the detailed analysis of the requirements of the standards of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) related to the Strategic Management and Innovation. The paper presents an articulated procedure that was adopted for the development of the process model. The developed process model highlights a systemic approach to process design and implementation of AACSB accreditation standards related to Strategic Management and Innovation in a business school setting. The process model developed as part of this study received systematic reviews from a business school environment. The authors intend to develop process models for the remaining areas related to AACSB standards in the near future. Business schools can benefit from the process model whether they are planning to implement AACSB standards for accreditation or are interested in changing their current processes to adhere to AACSB standards.
Process, accreditation, AACSB, standards, business school
Human Resource practices are the heart of most organisation for sustaining talented employees. Sustainable manpower is required by any organisation to facilitate productivity, minimise training costs, implement effectiveness of training inputs and cost of production. Organisations can adopt best strategies to overcome competition by effectively participating in CSR activities and creating good organisational image among employees and society. By considering the importance of manpower sustainability in their organisation, the researchers studied the impacts of SHRM on employees' performance for manpower sustainability. The research study involved 100 employees, who were working in a manpower agency of Chennai International Airport at the time of the study. The researchers found that there is a significant association between age of the respondents and their willingness to continue working in the organisation. The researchers also found that 56% of employees aged less than 30 years (44 employees out of 79 employees in that age group) were willing to continue in the organisation for the maximum period of 2 years. This study revealed that there is a significant variance between educational qualification of the employees and their responses that they perform better in the organisation, company inspires them to work towards organizational goal and frequency of supervisors' feedback. This study also revealed that the employees having a bachelors' degree agreed that they were performing better and the superior gives feedback about their performance frequently than the other employees with other qualifications. Meanwhile, compared to other employees of other qualifications, those with post-graduate qualification agreed that the company inspires them to work and they were willing to work to achieve organisational goal. The researchers also found that there is a negative correlation between experience of the employees and their response towards current salary and other packages. This study revealed that the age group of the employees is an important independent variable in predicting the employees' responses towards the manpower agency who recognises their performance.
SHRM practices, performance, manpower, sustainability and organizational goal
Sylvia Plath's "Daddy" is one of her most widely studied poems under psychoanalytic theories. This paper, however, argues that the poet offers a meticulous framework of art revealing the strata of an autocratic government from its heyday to the fall of its leader. In this regard, the paper presumes that the poet had already established antagonism between Daddy as the symbol of arbitrary power and herself as the representative of the suppressed in society. This study applies the concepts of race, space and vision to the poem based on Sallie Westwood's power grammar in his Power and the Social (2002) and also gives prominence to political cognition introduced by Teun A. van Dijk. Finally, the paper affirms that although there are traces of autobiographical narrative within the poem, Plath's work surely stands as a great illustration of a totalitarian regime that sanctions programmes of propaganda, surveillance and ethnic purgation.
"Daddy", political cognition, power grammar, Sallie Westwood, Sylvia Plath, Teun A. van Dijk
This study aims at identifying the structural and functional types of lexical bundles (LBs) used in the reading passages of Malaysian University English Test (MUET). A specialised corpus of MUET reading passages was built. The passages were categorised into five main disciplines namely Applied Science, Pure Science, Business, Humanities and Social Science. Using WordSmith Tools version 5, the lists of frequently occurring LBs in all the five disciplines were generated. They were then sorted according to Biber, Conrad and Cortes' (2004) Structural Taxonomy and Hyland's (2008) Functional Taxonomy. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were adopted to determine the association between the structural and functional categories of the five disciplines. The results revealed that the number of LBs across the structural and functional categories in the five disciplines differed significantly. However, a strong association was observed between the two categories in all five disciplines where LBs incorporating noun phrases (NPs) usually performed research-oriented function whereas LBs incorporating dependent clauses (DCs) were strongly bound to text-oriented function. LBs incorporating verb phrases (VPs) on the contrary were linked to participant-oriented functions as well as other types of functions. Significant association was identified between the categories in all the disciplines. The two additional categories encompassing various structures of LBs and other functions not listed in Biber et al.'s (2004) Structural Taxonomy and Hyland's (2008) Functional Taxonomy respectively were also significantly associated. The key finding of the study was that structural categories and discourse functions are closely interrelated.
This paper attempts to scrutinize and analyse Tolkien's high epic fantasy novel, The Hobbit, in the light of Derrida's views on literature as a liberal institution. Many scholars have read this novel through the lens of European mythologies, Abrahamic theocracy, etc. because Tolkien's text lends itself to such readings by practicing liberality. However, all these trends have a common overarching finalization; that is, finding a certain originarity for Tolkien's sub-created cosmos. While as a Derridean reading, this study contemplates the impossibility and danger of searching for originarity to disinter and discover new pleasures of reading Tolkien, it also seeks to investigate the affinity that exists between Derridean terms such as undecidability, iterability, and alterity, and Tolkien's text itself. This is crucial because the aim here is to explain the liberal power and the liberality of Tolkien's text according to Derridean concepts. The argument is that the text of The Hobbit is a stage on which the above-mentioned concepts interplay and the flow and dynamism of the story is guaranteed by literature as a liberal institution. This is while the play of structure is at work in The Hobbit's narrative to keep the stories' continuum alive and dynamic. This means that the story, with its liberal power, neutralizes any claim over ideality by constantly revisiting its own context. Accordingly, finalized and whole identities, presences, and claims are challenged and destabilized by the undecidable discourse of the story, and as a result more meanings and possibilities are revealed in a provocative reading.
Tolkien, The Hobbit, Derrida, liberality, undecidability
The Foucauldian conceptualisation of Sophrosyne as moderation, self-mastery, control and freedom is deepened to gain deeper nuance of the coming-out process of same-sex attracted men in Penang, Malaysia who are of ethnic Chinese descent. The deepening of the concepts focussed on moderation, balance, structure, self-realisation, individuality and personal growth in the coming-out process of the respondents. Qualitative in nature, this research is based on a sample of 15 men who identify as same-sex attracted who were interviewed in-depth on the subject of their experience of coming out as same-sex attracted. The data suggest that similarities exist between Sophrosyne and the coming-out process as described by Western scholars. However, due to conservative Asian values, Sophrosyne allows respondents to focus more on the personalised and individualised experience of coming out that does not necessarily reflect major Western models.
The author sought to verify occupational stress among Thai immigrant employees aged 20 years or older in Bangkok, Thailand and to determine the variables (e.g. working conditions, workloads, job securities and wages) associated with occupational stress among Thai immigrant employees in Bangkok. Five hundred Thai immigrant employees in Thailand's capital, Bangkok, were interviewed. Occupational stress was assessed using the Thai Job Content Questionnaire (Thai-JCQ), Thai version, which was applied using the Job Demand Control (JDC) model by Karasek. Data analysis was undertaken using a path diagram. The results showed that the variables could explain the occupational stress change by 26.6%. Working conditions, workload and job security have a direct effect on occupational stress with standardised regression weights of 0.309, 0.204 and 0.172 (p-value<0.01), respectively. Moreover, workload has indirect relationship on occupational stress with standardised regression weights of 0.062 (p-value<0.01). In contradiction, wages did not have any significance. In conclusion, working conditions have the most direct relationship on occupational stress. A suggestion should be that a study, using qualitative methods, is undertaken to further understand its links to the creation of health policy.
One of the most important issues among ESL students is inappropriate use of source material in their academic writing. As a result, plagiarism is more common among ESL students. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of source information type (print versus online) on plagiarism patterns in students' academic essays. The data of this study comprised Malaysian undergraduates' essays written based on references to print or Internet sources. The originality reports of the students' essays submitted to Turnitin were then checked against the original sources to code various instances of similarity. The results indicated that direct copying with no reference and quotation marks was the most frequent plagiarism pattern in students' essays. Moreover, the study found a statistically significant difference between plagiarism patterns in students' writing based on print and online source modes.
Despite national plans and policies to reduce HIV infection rates in the nation, Penang remains a state with a high HIV infection rate within the gay male population. This research therefore, undertook to discover and analyse challenges of condom use faced by gay men in Penang. The research took the qualitative route of research design and collected data utilising the purposive method and snowball technique. Respondents were interviewed in-depth utilising a semi-structured questionnaire and 33 respondents were gathered until the point of data saturation was achieved. Data were analysed using a content analysis matrix and all data were secured via 128-bit encryption. The research gained clearance to proceed from the Ethics Committee of Universiti Sains Malaysia. Despite assertions of assertiveness and confidence in negotiating safer sex with sexual partners, the findings showed that respondents faced a myriad of challenges to negotiating condom use, as well as erratic condom use. The findings also showed that the respondents discarded safer sex when sexual desire was strong, that they had multiple sexual partners and had reservations when inquiring about the sexual history and HIV status of their sexual partners. However, there were no findings to indicate that the respondents discarded safer sex practices due to the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or while under the influence of recreational drugs. Although the respondents recognised the value of practicing safer sex, there exists a disjoint between the intent to practicing safer sex and the actual execution. Personal choices derail the intent to practicing safer sex and signalling a need for an individualised approach to overcoming challenges to safer sex. Challenges to the practice of safer sex come in various forms and need to be addressed via an individualised approach. National policy is vital to the reduction of HIV infection rates. Cognizance of how gay men make their safer sex choices is equally vital in this endeavour. Implications of the findings for policy development and future research are discussed.
This study attempted to compare the speech act of main components of complaint strategies in English and Persian in varying situations in two contextual variables, namely, social power (P) and social distance (D). The performance of Iranian EFL learners was also investigated to see how they performed complaints in the target language. A Discourse Completion Test (DCT), composed of six open-ended items, was administered to 24 Iranian students majoring in English Language and Literature at Shiraz University, who were selected based on their score on TOEFL proficiency test (2004) and 16 Australian English native speakers. Data collected through the DCT, were coded and analysed based on taxonomy of complaints developed by Rinnert and Nogami (2006). The focus of the study was on the main component taxonomy. Chi-square tests were conducted to compare the performance of the groups. The results of chi-square for teacher situation showed that the Australian English native speakers (AE) significantly used an initiator more frequently than the Persian EFL learners (PE) and the Persian native speakers (PP). In the case of the academic advisor situation, the AE speakers significantly employed complaints more frequently than the PP. On the part of student situation, the AE speakers started the conversation with a complaint more frequently than the PP speakers. The participants in the PE group significantly used a request more frequently than the AE, but the AE and PP speakers used this semantic formula exactly equally. In the case of other situations, the results of chi-square revealed no significant differences in the frequencies of using complaint patterns between the groups. The performance of Iranian EFL learners showed that they sometimes significantly diverged from their English counterparts. It was concluded that other factors, along with negative transfer, were responsible for such a divergence.
Speech act theory, complaint, social distance, social power, politeness
The poor number of organ donation is becoming a very worrying phenomenon especially to those patients with chronic diseases, as well as those who require an immediate transplant. Although a variety of programmes and promotional campaigns have been organised and promoted by the agencies responsible for handling the organ donation, the number of donors is still at a discouraging level. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyse the perceptions of young generation in regard to organ donation. Random samplings of 387 respondents consisting of undergraduate students at University of Malaya were selected for this study. The study found that young people's perceptions were very much influenced by their family members and friends, as well as family history. There is a significant difference between mean of gender and willingness towards organ donation and transplantation (t = -2.60, df = 385, p = <.05). The Spearman correlation shows a positive but weak correlation between the intention of the surveyed students towards registering as donors and their perceptions about organ donation and transplantation (r = .354, p <0.05). In sum, discussions on the issue of organ donation and transplantation should be held regularly in Higher Learning Institutions in order to change the misperceptions and misconceptions of the younger generation about organ donation and transplantation.
Family history, organ donation and transplantation, perception, public health campaign, survey, University of Malaya, youths
This article explores the tension between the humanistic, eugenic concept of identity and that of posthumanism in Octavia Butler's "Amnesty" (2005). Using Daphne Hampson's feminist post-Biblical perspective, the article argues that the story exposes a posthumanist perspective where the existence and subjectivity of human kind is defined based on a mutual, non-hierarchical relation between the human and nonhuman worlds. This article suggests that "Amnesty," reflecting an unothered perspective of life through an unorthodox theological perspective, illustrates the potential for a more humanitarian life on Earth.
This paper reports evidence of a banking liquidity impact on stock prices in the three Asean countries. Banking liquidity impacts suggested by Friedman is yet to be fully investigated nor verified despite several attempts. If improved liquidity of banks leads to credit expansion, which in turn leads to more positive net present value projects undertaken by firms, earnings of the latter must go up, and hence the share prices should rise. This link is worth an investigation. According to an influential of the US stock market, up to 52% of share returns are due to changes in the macro economy. Using a 3-equation structural model as well as employing corrections for cross-section dependence, we examine the link between money supply, liquidity and stock prices over 2001:4Q and 2012:2Q in three developing countries. It is found money supply changes lead to a positive liquidity effect and banking liquidity impacts share market prices positively. These findings are new and in support of Friedman's liquidity proposition, and also constitute evidence of a banking liquidity having a positive effect on asset prices.
ASEAN countries, liquidity, bubble, pooled mean group, Dynamic Fixed Effects, Cointegration, Structural break, Panel Unit Roots
This study aims to explore the effect of human resource management practices on labour productivity in the Libyan national oil corporation. Labour productivity demands high staff selection and job training, decentralised decision making and high employees' motivation of the human factors. Hypothetical deductive approach was used to carry out the research through structural equation modelling. This study involved a cross sectional survey through 339 respondents among three top Libyan national oil corporation. Results revealed that decentralised decision making and on-the-job training had a positive and significant relationship with labour productivity. Meanwhile, employees' motivation and staff selections were found to be non-significant in the Libyan context. The findings implied that the oil and gas industry must concentrate on the key antecedents of HRM in order to increased long-term productivity and turnover. The role of employees' motivation and staff selection as HRM practices contradict the results of previous studies that found these factors to be crucial for labour productivity. Thus, such relationships need to be further explored and investigated. The study commemorates the rising argument among researchers that organisational human resource policies can improve labour productivity and organisational goals. Labour productivity is significantly influenced by two major dimensions towards progressive HR practices. This study contributes to the existing empirical analyses of HRM practices and labour productivity.
The objective of this paper is to explore identity politics in the representations of the Chetti Melaka identity at a one-day symposium entitled The Lost Tribe of Chetti Melaka - Who Are We? in Singapore. The paper focusses on three speakers whom we found most engaged in identity politics in their presentation at the symposium. Engaging with Stuart Hall's ideas of "being" and "becoming" and Farish Noor's ideas of "fluid Peranakan-ness," we employ discourse analysis to explore the sense of displacement seen at the symposium and Chetti identity in Singapore. Our discussion and findings reveal the interesting minoritisation dynamics of the Chetti Melaka in terms of ethnic and national identity, particularly in the context of modern, postcolonial, globalised and cosmopolitan Singapore.
Chetti Melaka, Peranakan, identity politics, discourse, being and becoming
The Indonesian politics of the national language has long been overshadowed by the interests of the dominant elites and it has tended to serve the ideologies of the power holders. Decisions regarding the national language policy are made top-down and ignore the ideologies of the grassroots people. In the name of the language slogan, " Bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa pemersatu bangsa (the Indonesian language as the nation's unifying language)", the country's language policy and planning has ardently been promoting Indonesian as the national language, but puts the heritage languages in danger of extinction. In this article, discussion will focus on conflicts over language preferences and assessment of their significance for the development and modernisation of the Indonesian language. This paper will also emphasises on the fact that the conflict is difficult to resolve due to the pluralist dilemma. Despite this dilemma, minority language speakers are able to take the initiatives to exercise their agency, reconstruct their identities and maintain their home languages. They use their heritage languages to appropriate and resist dominant languages. In this paper, such a practice is referred to as grassroots performativity.
The national language, pluralist dilemma, minority language speakers, identities, home languages, dominant language
This paper attempts to explain the resilience of the "ambiguous regime" commonly assumed by proponents of transition paradigm as the "halfway house" that is unstable and will not stand. Transition theorists assume that countries that come out of the "gray zone" during the "third wave of democratisation" as having failed the democratisation process. In this paper, Malaysia is chosen as a case study to refute this assumption. Well known for its ambiguous political system, Malaysia has remained resilient in the face of political challenges. Instead of falling apart as predicted by the transition proponents, Malaysia's ambiguous regime has persisted. This paper examines how "hybrid political configuration" has served as a tool to strengthen and sustain the so-called "ambiguous" regime. It argues that democracy and authoritarian attributes that exist in this ambiguous political system have helped to uphold the regime and sustain it. This paper seeks to explain and display the mechanism in which a hybrid political system works. This analysis hopes to fill in the gaps left by the transition scholarship. Thus, this paper proposes that transition analysts should focus more on how a particular and "ambiguous" regime really works rather than 'standardising' the democratisation process.
Third wave democratisation, gray zone, hybrid regime, hybrid political system, Malaysia
This paper investigates income distribution-environment nexus in the context of country-specific time series data from four member states of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN-4), namely Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand. The short run and long run effects of income inequality, economic growth, domestic investment, trade openness and energy consumption on Carbon Dioxide (CO2 ) emissions were examined by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) estimation. The annual data used in this study covers the period from 1971 to 2013. More equitable income distribution results in better environmental quality for Indonesia and Thailand but leads to a worsening environment in the case of Malaysia. Meanwhile, no significant relationship was detected between income distribution and environmental quality in Philippines. It was also found that domestic investment and energy consumption have beneficial effects on the environmental quality in Indonesia whereas trade openness and the expansion of the economy (GDP) will have a detrimental effect on its environment. However, these variables have shown mixed results in the case of Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand. The main contribution of this study is the introduction of income distribution as a new determinant for environmental quality for these ASEAN-4 countries, thus giving new insights for policymakers to propose better policy recommendations on achieving sustainable growth.
Income distribution, environmental quality, ASEAN-4, long run elasticities, Environmental Kuznets Curve
This study examines the finance-growth nexus in Cote D'Ivoire and Nigeria using different proxies of measuring financial development to ascertain whether the finance-growth nexus is sensitive to financial development proxies. Findings reveal that a co-integration relationship exists between financial development and economic growth in both countries. While supply-leading hypothesis is supported in Cote D'Ivoire, the feedback hypothesis is supported in Nigeria. Further evidence indicates that the finance-growth nexus is sensitive to the proxies used to measure financial development. The implication of this study is that financial development promotes economic growth. Hence, countries should implement policies and reforms that favour the advancement of those proxies that accelerate growth in order to achieve sustainable economic growth.
Economic growth, finance-growth nexus, financial development
This article presents the narrative and lived experiences of de facto single mothers (DFSM), a category of single mothers who, by law, are not 'single mothers' but in reality, are living like any other single mothers. In many cases, this category of single mothers is simply referred to as "abandoned wives". A substantial body of literature exist on single mothers in Malaysia; however, the literature that specifically focuses on the DFSM is scanty. Using in-depth interviews and observation, this article explores the experiences and narratives of five DFSM in Penang Island. Findings have shown that DFSM are more vulnerable and marginalised than legally separated mothers (divorced). Not having a divorce certificate would also mean that they are not legally a 'single mother' and therefore, in many cases, are not qualified to be registered as members of Single Mother's Association and almost often are deprived of government assistance. This has led to what is called a "Double Abandoned" phenomenon when not only are these women abandoned by their husbands (or sometimes families) but also by the relevant institutional agencies. It is suggested that the government should seriously address the struggles and challenges faced by these DFSM so that a better support and facilities are made available to this group.
Gender, lived experiences, Malaysia, de facto single mothers, narratives
The objective of this study is to disseminate the value of my own unique body and seek to be liberate it from the constraints imposed on the disabled by our culture and society. Auto-ethnography is a tool for self-empowerment that guides me to enjoy the journey of self-reflexivity and recovery. Three themes have emerged after the activity of self-reflexivity: i) "disability" is not the problem, ii) "disability" is a hidden or untapped strength and iii) "disability" can be turned into a journey enroute to discovering meaning and the purpose of my existence. My critical, innermost thoughts liberate me from the socially constructed normativising identity traps that try to put the blame, hinder and burden of my unique body, I imprisoning the mind around the identity of a disabled person. This study may become a source of inspiration that helps many others to appreciate and reappraise their own bodies, and discover their individuality as a form of power and impetus for socio-personal and socio-structural transformation.
The motivation for this article began from personal experiences with Ritzer's McDonaldization thesis. This thesis refers to the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant have gradually dominated most sectors of American society and the world. Not only has the restaurant business been affected, but virtually every other aspect of society, such as education, work, health care, travel, leisure, dieting, politics, and the family have been also influenced by the McDonaldization thesis. The success of McDonaldization is in its promise of efficiency, calculability, predictability and control, to consumers, workers, and managers. This article examines Ritzer's McDonaldization in Penang.
McDonaldization, rationalisation, irrationality of rationality
Youth need to develop skills and character to enable them to cope with challenges. However, there is limited research on youth's perspectives of meaningful activities and happiness among youth in the Asia Pacific region. Firstly, this study identifies the types of activities that are deemed meaningful to youth. Secondly, it examines if there is any significant relationship between engagement in meaningful activities and happiness and thirdly, it compares youth's engagement in meaningful activities and their happiness level in two institutions in Taiwan and Malaysia. A total of 338 undergraduate students responded to a packet of survey, including self-report of engagement in meaningful activity survey and the Authentic Happiness Inventory. Results show that there is a significant relationship between engagement in meaningful activities and happiness at p<.01. Among the activities cited, voluntary work and organised community activities appear to be the factors that constitute youth engagement in meaningful activities and happiness. Tzu Chi Medical students yielded the highest mean scores in Happiness as compared to the students from other departments at p<.01. Insight into how engagement in meaningful activities has been found to positively influence youth happiness has significance for educational organizations in programme development, staff training, and evaluation.
Youth, engagement, meaningful activities, happiness, community activities
Racial discrimination is back as a hot topic. Although studies documented that racial inequality negatively influences racial minorities, the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and aggression is unclear. Therefore, this study aims to explore the impact of perceived racial discrimination on aggression in Malaysia. A total of 136 adults responded to an online survey consisting of the Brief Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version (Brief PEDQ-CV) and Aggression Questionnaire 12 (AQ-12). Correlation analysis found positive relationships between subscales of perceived racial discrimination (Exclusion, Workplace Discrimination/Discrimination at school, Stigmatisation, Threat and Harassment, & Police) as well as aggression (Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Anger, & Hostility). The Police subscale, however, was only associated with Physical Aggression. Gender differences were found in Physical Aggression, with males scoring higher than females. Multiple regression analyses showed that Exclusion has impact on both Anger and Hostility. The findings of this study contribute to relevant literature by showing that people become angry and hostile when they are being racially excluded. The results also highlight the importance of racial equality in individual well-beings in addition to creating awareness of racial discrimination in Malaysia.
Racial discrimination, aggression, exclusion, gender differences, Malaysia
Does racism endure? Should it still exist in an open, liberal multicultural society particularly with the establishment of anti-discriminative laws and societal development? Racism should be minimal among the educated populace in a university where individuals are more likely to be motivated to act in an objective and non-prejudiced manner. Have the programmes and policies that stress on fairness and equality suppressed the manifestation of racism into modern racism? Racial microaggression is an indirect and subtle form of racism that happens in everyday life that may be intentionally and unintentionally executed by the perpetrators and often catch the recipients off-guard. This research aims to unearth the themes of racial microaggression experienced among Malaysian public university scholars. It also explores the reactions of people experiencing racial microaggression. A qualitative study involving personal, one-to-one in-depth interviews was conducted with 40 undergraduates, from 4 racial groups (Malay, Chinese, Indian and East Malaysian) recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Interpretational Phenomenological Analysis was used to analyse the data. Results indicated 11 common themes such as: (i) Paradox of over-scrutiny/ overlook, (ii) Differential treatment towards people from different race/ religion, and (iii) Assumption of superiority/ inferiority/ intelligence due to race. The reactions include thoughts (e.g. disbelieve) and negative emotions (e.g. disappointment). The results of this research are important in revealing and understanding the phenomenon of racial microaggression. The present research may deliver informative insights into the reality of inter/ intra-ethnic interaction in a university raising awareness and helping to develop effective measurements to reduce such behaviours among scholars.
Modern racism, subtle racism, implicit racism, implicit prejudice, indirect racism
The influx of immigrants into Malaysia is becoming a subject of controversy. Some local groups claim that since immigrants are demanded in certain industries namely plantation, agriculture, mining, manufacturing and construction sectors, their benefits and impact in the rural sectors needs to be studied. This study identifies the implications of migration on the rural community. The objective of this study is to explore local people's perceptions on the socio-economic impacts of Indonesian immigrants in their rural areas. The data is collected using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Surveys were carried out to 671 local people in six villages through a purposive sampling technique. Results showed locals acknowledge the importance of immigrant labour in rural sectors and contribute to the positive impact on rural development. Generally, Indonesian workers play a significant role and have a huge impact on the economic development in rural areas. Indonesian immigrants are well known as labour replacements or seasonal immigrants and have the positive attitude as hardworking and obedient workers. Thus, policy on immigrants in Malaysia needs to be further revised due to a xenophobic reaction by the locals that create prejudices towards immigrants.
Indonesian workers, rural areas, local perspective, economic impact