Academic vocabulary, an essential aspect of higher education, is becoming increasingly important for pupils to master as larger groups go on to university studies. There is however little research done on how well-prepared Swedish pupils deem themselves to be for the higher educational requirements in English as a foreign language and whether they are able to assess their vocabulary skills with any degree of accuracy. In this article, a mixed method approach was used to explore a group of pupils' (N=45) self-efficacy, and self-assessment with regards to vocabulary size and mastery using the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) proficiency scales. A vocabulary test was then administered and the results were compared to their self-assessments. A few follow up interviews were conducted to get a deeper understanding the pupils' reasoning. The results indicate that high performing pupils consider themselves well prepared for university studies but tend to overestimate their vocabulary skills, indicating that Swedish pupils may not meet the curriculum's goals of having developed a realistic view of their language level and competence.
This is an updated text version of a speech given at the 1st ASEAN English Language Teaching Conference held at the Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, 15-17 March 2018. The theme of the Conference was "Maximizing the Potential in ASEAN Diversities through the English Language". Language education development work undertaken under the auspices of the Council of Europe and the European Union is reviewed and related to this theme. Improvement of the conditions for language learning and intercultural communication has long been a concern in the Council of Europe and work has been undertaken in many areas of language policy, language education, and language assessment. Examples of advances are the formulation of principles for the description of goals for language learning, the elaboration of a comprehensive Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), and the production of a model for a European Language Portfolio. Some such initiatives are here illustrated and commented on in light of the theme of the Conference. The point is made that language study of the kind referred to here leads to improved intercultural communicative ability and enhanced learner empowerment and that the approach in question may stimulate similar initiatives, with similar means, in other contexts. In conclusion, it is suggested that the provision of language instruction is particularly efficacious if it can be realized within a theoretical framework that allows both easy comparison between learning targets and transparent evaluation of their attainment.
CEFR, intercultural communication, language assessment, language education, language policy, learner empowerment, linguistic diversity, self-diagnosis of language ability
The article explores how Malaysian corporate websites employ multimodality, or language and image features to disclose corporate social responsibility (CSR). As previous research mostly analyzes disclosure in Malaysian CSR reports, and European or North American websites, the article studies Malaysian corporate websites. It examined the CSR webpages of the two largest Malaysian corporations: Malayan Banking and Tenaga Nasional. The article distinguishes two dimensions of reading and interacting, which explain what visitors 'do with' and 'do to' websites respectively. It inspects the language and image features in these dimensions using Systemic Functional-Multimodal Discourse Analysis (SF-MDA). While the information in the reading dimension emphasizes corporations and their CSR, the design in the interacting dimension emphasizes options to select to obtain changes in websites. The two dimensions are complementary because the design helps to navigate the information. Their language and image features constitute semantic motifs that indicate corporations as the source and stakeholders as the target of CSR. The motifs foster the ideology of corporate involvement bringing social improvement, which discloses the corporate perspective. The analysis of websites helps practitioners and academics in corporate communication to create persuasive CSR disclosure in websites, and it may encourage members of society to be critical of disclosure.
This research presents the linguistics perspective on the naming of nature tourism destinations in Pangandaran, Jawa Barat-Indonesia. Linguistic tools employed to analyze the data are morphology and metaphors. Formerly, a research was conducted by identifying the names of nature tourism destinations in Pangandaran, then they were analyzed based on the word formation studies. The meanings or messages of the destinations' names are discussed with the metaphors found in the names of the destinations. This research employs qualitative descriptive method by using data from the Jawa Barat Province Tourism Information Center about Pangandaran. The analysis aims to describe the destinations and their branding function based on their names. The results of this research show that the names of nature tourism destinations, morphologically, derived from blending, composition, and proper names, while metaphorically the names mean the physical characteristics of the nature tourism destination, location of the destination, and activity in the destination. Therefore, branding function of the destination names is in line with the metaphorical meanings.
Branding, destination, metaphors, nature tourism, Pangandaran, word formation
Despite their ubiquity, puns are used purposefully in children's literature. To manifest the author's punning intention, puns should be rendered as puns in the target language. However, due to linguistic and cultural differences, puns are frequently lost in translation. With reference to The BFG, a famous children's book by Roald Dahl, this article explored the challenge of pun translation from English into Thai from the perspective of relevance theory. A case study approach was employed to provide insight into the translation strategies for puns from English into Thai. Moreover, quantitative data were used to support the results. The comparative analysis of the source language puns and their translations revealed that the translator tended to resort to literal translation, resulting in the loss of punning effects in the translations. Accordingly, the readers of the target language do not gain similar effects as the source language readers. Based on the relevance-theoretic approach, this article suggests recreating a target language pun or adjusting the target language contexts in order to achieve interpretive resemblance and save the punning effects intended by the author.
WhatsApp is a popular social network application which is used for social communication and as a learning platform. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether university students learning Mandarin as a foreign language consider WhatsApp as a useful medium that enhances and/or improves their listening skill. This is a pilot study which was carried out at the Kedah branch of Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia during the September 2017-January 2018 semester. Convenience sample was used for this study. There were only 38 undergraduate students who were learning Introductory Mandarin II during that semester. As such, all the students were invited to participate in the study. The students downloaded a series of Mandarin learning podcasts through WhatsApp throughout the study semester. At the end of the semester, a survey was administered to the students. The result shows that the students believed WhatsApp can be utilized as a useful medium for developing listening proficiency in Mandarin. The result implicates that instructors should be encouraged to use WhatsApp as a listening tool to promote more listening exercises. It is also suggested that future research should focus on the effectiveness of WhatsApp on students' listening proficiency.
Generic spelling checkers (GSCs), such as the one included in Microsoft Word, might seem appropriate for second language (L2) learners of Spanish to correct their writing. However, previous applied linguistics researchers point out that these proof-readers are designed primarily for native writers; they automatically correct some mistakes or provide alternatives, while sometimes failing to detect L2 learners' errors. This study evaluates the efficacy of spell-check packages developed for L2 learners to overcome these limitations. Thirty compositions written by learners of Spanish as a Foreign Language (SFL) were randomly chosen from a corpus. Spelling mistakes in the compositions were analysed, categorised and inputted into three specially designed spell checkers. Their efficacy in detecting and providing appropriate feedback was compared with a GSC. The results suggest that, despite detecting more than 85% of the errors, all the platforms fail to give the appropriate alternative for one third of the spelling errors. Surprisingly, the GSC provided the right alternative more frequently (67%). Additionally, the feedback provided by the specialised spell checkers is limited to a list of potential alternatives. Future iterations of spell checkers should include an expanded database of frequent L2 spelling errors for comparison and feedback that is tailored to L2 learners of Spanish and teaches them how to avoid future mistakes.
Accuracy of spell checkers, computer assisted language learning, L2 spelling acquisition, Microsoft Word, orthography, self-correction, Spanish as a foreign language, written corrective feedback
The objective of this developmental study is to develop a model of academic writing materials for the English Education Department learners based on the accelerated learning approach. The data of this study consisted of quantitative and qualitative data. The data sources were learners, English instructors, and experts in the academic writing materials design. Data were collected using observations, interviews, questionnaires, documents, and focus group discussion. The materials were developed in four steps: (1) analyzing the existing materials, (2) carrying out needs analysis, (3) developing materials and (4) validating them. Data were analysed using percentages for quantitative data. Miles, Huberman and Saldana technique (2014) was used for qualitative data, namely, data condensation, data display, and verification. In order to establish the trustworthiness of the data, this study implemented the triangulation method: source, method, and theory. The result of this study was a theoretical model of academic writing materials based on accelerated learning containing: (1) the components of English writing materials, (2) communicative principle, (3) learning by integrating mind, emotion, and body, (4) activating conscious and unconscious thought, and (5) relaxation, music, and suggestion.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the distribution procedure of the Poor Student Trust Fund to schools in Malaysia. This study will also identify the weaknesses in the fund distribution process and associate it with the internal control activities currently applied in that procedure. A mixed method of data collection via analysis of semi structured interviews and document analysis was employed to gain understanding on the current distribution procedures at the state, district, and school levels, while at the same time highlight the strengths and weaknesses in the current processes. This study found that over-dependence on the manual systems, task redundancies, duplication of resources, poor usage of information and communication technologies, and incompetence of human capital are the factors that contributed to the inefficiency of funds distributed from the state to the beneficiaries at the schools. The results provide further confirmation of the poor accountability of the public sector management in Malaysia, particularly in managing public finance in the education sectors. This study provides an indicator to government and stakeholders that various efforts and change are needed to be taken in order to improve the current fund distribution process, at least in the context of poor student trust funds. The internal controls have too many weaknesses that consequently lead to the late acceptance of government financial assistance. This will be worse off if it does not reach the right beneficiaries and is susceptible to fraud.
Accountability, fraud, internal control, Malaysia, public finance management, public sector accounting
Design is the fundamental soul to all branches of engineering. It is a prime context for understanding how civil engineers use critical thinking and mathematical thinking in engineering problem-solving. However, information about the interrelation between these two types of thinking in real-world engineering practice is found lacking in the literature. This paper presents the first-hand experience of developing a substantive theory which relates both critical thinking and mathematical thinking used by practicing engineers in the civil engineering design process. The qualitative research using modified grounded theory method was employed in this study. Data were generated from semi-structured interviews with practicing engineers from two engineering consultancy firms. Six essential processes of justifying decisions reasonably in engineering design process were identified, namely complying requirements, forming conjectures, drawing reasonable conclusions, defending claims with good reasons, giving alternative ways and selecting and pursuing the right approach. Findings of this study may advise prospective civil engineers of the applicability and indispensability of critical thinking and mathematical thinking in making and justifying decisions during the engineering design process. The study also contributes useful information to engineering education on fulfilling the expectations of engineering program outcomes set by the Engineering Accreditation Council.
Since the reformation era, socio-political realities of the life of the nation within the frame of democracy in Indonesia have not shown people's intelligence and awareness for real democracy. An important agenda would be to build school as a laboratory of democracy and the microcosmos of democracy. This research employed a qualitative approach through the case study method. The data collection is through interviews, observation, and document analysis. The findings of this study indicate: (1) democracy education is perceived as effort to teach the understanding of rights and obligations to improve students discipline; (2) the planning and the implementation of civic learning refers to systematic democratic learning; and (3) Student Council activities and extra-curricular activities provide a real experience of democracy and socio-cultural values. In conclusion, the research indicates that the Integrated High School of Krida Nusantara Bandung, West Java, adopts a pattern of disciplinary education that is aligned to the National Education System, religious education, military discipline, and boarding care.
It is pertinent for students to be aware of their learning achievements. Previous research shows that many factors are related to achieving learning outcomes such as self-adjustment, social support from peers, and self-regulation. Whilst these factors may be enough to produce students who will be able to understand biology, they may not be sufficient to produce high achieving students who are motivated to learn biology. This study aims to determine the relationship between self-adjustment, social support from peers, and self-regulation and the outcomes of biology learning through motivation in learning in high school students. Data was collected through a questionnaire and documentation. The findings show that self-adjustment, social support, and self-regulation have a direct relationship with motivation and biology learning outcomes. Self-adjustment has an indirect relationship with learning outcomes through motivation in learning biology with a path coefficient of 0.14; social support from peers has an indirect relationship with the learning outcomes through student learning biology motivation with a path coefficient of 0.20; and self-regulation has an indirect relationship with learning outcomes through student learning motivation with a path coefficient of 0.26. The conclusion of this study shows that it is important to foster the factors that determine student learning outcomes.
Learning outcomes, motivation, self-adjustment, self-regulation, social support
This study investigates the role of Islamic education in encountering the threat of radicalism that is increasing in this era of globalization. This problem needs to be solved in order to overcome the radicalism that exists, especially in education.The students as the future generation of Indonesia have been influenced by too much of radical thinking. Currently, radical thinking has sprung up in educational institutions as well.This research studies the use of the Asah Potential Fithrah (APF) method in Islamic education to counter radicalism. Data was collected through interviews with principals from Islamic education institutions in Lampung. Islamic education has implemented democratic learning with the so-called APF method. The APF method is applied in the learning process based on the human identity which is born in a state of fithrah. This research shows that the application of APF in Islamic education among graduates can result in tolerant attitude, enhance their ability in the mastery of science, make them possess higher skills, and cultivate noble character. This research implies that radicalism can be overcome by applying the APF method which is in harmony with human nature.The deviation of human behavior in the form of violence is against humanity and Islam.
Among prevalent methods of disposal for municipal solid waste, landfilling is the most common one. A landfill requires a piece of land and receive a huge amount of wastes for a certain period of time. Many landfills all around the world are located into or nearby urban areas where the land is scarce and highly demanded. Therefore, an important question arises on how to re-use this piece of threatening land. The aim of this study is to highlight the benefits of landscape work with the roles of landscape architects or equivalent disciplines to succeed a sustainable development of a landfill site not only after the landfill being closed but also from the beginning of it. To achieve this, a comprehensive investigation has been done among related literature to address these issues and prove that landscape work is one of the key factors that can lead a landfill project to a more successful and beneficial one which eventually makes the project sustainable. The findings of the study are useful for those who are engaging in landfill industries both practitioners and academicians and will contribute knowledge about sustainable development of landfill from a different perspective.
Landscape architecture, landfill development, landscape work, sustainable development
The public market is a phenomenon that shows how socio-cultural relationships are constructed through economic activities. The modern development of Indonesia has marginalized the public market; lack of proper management caused public markets to turn into slums and dirty places that were unable to compete with modern retail businesses. In the 2000s, however, the Indonesian government started a public market revitalization program, recognizing its important role as 'a house of economy and culture' for Indonesian society. This paper evaluates two successfully revitalized public markets and their role as economic and socio-cultural places. Two cities, Surakarta and Bandung, were chosen as cases studies because they use different approaches of revitalization: the one a socio-cultural approach and the other an economic approach. It was found that the role of the public market as an economic place is determined by an intensive and/or extensive increase of its economic activities. Meanwhile, the public market as a socio-cultural place was evaluated by its role as a gathering place and symbolic representation of society. It was found that the role of the public market as an economic place is constituted mutually with its role as a socio-cultural place. The public market is an inclusive economic place because it provides affordable space and goods and is developed by social relationships among traders and consumers. This evaluation can contribute to guiding public market revitalization policy and develop further studies about the mutual relation between built environment and society.
Economic place, Pasar Balubur Bandung, Pasar Gede Surakarta, public market, revitalization, socio-cultural place
Green building is a holistic project that requires integrated planning and design approaches through the involvement of multidisciplinary professions. Green building projects in Malaysia usually involve developers, architects, engineers and energy consultants to make decisions in planning and design. The role of town planners in the project is limited especially when it comes to getting the approval for planning from the local authorities. This study aimed to identify the level of town planners' involvement in the planning and design process of green building projects in Malaysia. It also offered recommendations on how the green building projects could be supported by the town planners. The data were collected in two tiers of interviews. A first series of interviews was conducted among 22 town planners who represented town planning organizations from the private and public sectors in Malaysia. The data were analyzed qualitatively using the content analysis technique. Then, a second series of interviews were conducted among the town planners who had been involved with the planning and design process of three selected green building projects in Malaysia. The data obtained from this in-depth case study interviews were analyzed using the cross-case analysis. Findings indicate that the involvement of town planners and the input given to the green building projects were very limited which had led to disagreement throughout the planning and design process. The early contribution of town planners to the projects in the planning and design process will enhance the opportunity of the project to become 'green' in the true sense of the word.
Green building, involvement, local authority, planning and design, Malaysia, town planner
This study focuses on understanding the effect of the KLCC Park on its visitors' attitudes. Questionnaires were distributed to 90 respondents and their reactions were recorded. In addition, respondent demographics such as gender, ethnic group, occupation, education level and others were also recorded. It was found that an overwhelming majority of the respondents were satisfied with the circulation, safety, recreational, environmental and visual values of the park. Additionally, a majority of participant agreed to a series of statements which suggested that the park impacted their behaviour positively. The respondents were mostly men. Married people outnumbered the other categories, and those within the 30-40 years of age group formed the majority. Most respondents were Muslims who were mainly locals working in the private sector. It was found that the visitors preferred to visit the park in the evening for leisure purposes. A large percentage of them held a tertiary education. The authors conclude that the KLCC Park is a good model to study as it impacts the attitudes of visitors in a positive and healthy manner.
Genius loci, KLCC Park, sense of place, visitor attitude
Due to socio-economic changes and development in information technology, Indonesian families demand more dynamic and capability to manage their resources of time to achieve family goals. This study aims to elaborate the family time and routines, as well as family time management by family characteristics. This is a desk study using secondary data from several studies related to family time according to the diversity of family economic aspects (poor and non-poor), the type of wife's employment (formal/informal, stable/unstable, normal/longer working-hours) and geography (rural/urban, marginal regions), which was carried out between the years 2008-2014 in the Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Bogor Agricultural University. The results showed that the ability of the family to manage time was still low, especially in families with a wife who had informal and unstable work. The ability of the family in evaluating the use of time and the limited use of a household appliance that could accelerate domestic job was also low. Similarly, other findings indicated that family time and routines were relatively low, especially in poor families, rural families, and families with unstable work. Only about a third families could see the importance of self-care routines and family recreation. Based on the finding, the Indonesian family development stakeholders need to make efforts to increase the family's ability to manage their time, provide social support for families who need help, and develop family friendly jobs.
Family diversity, Indonesian family development, social support, time management, valuing family time and routine
In the age of the digital society, online fandom communities are becoming popular groups of young urban cultural enthusiasts in cyberspace. The aim of this study is to examine the cultural identity of these groups from the perspective of Cultural Studies. It used virtual ethnography as a methodology to examine the online fandom community "The Mortal Instruments Indonesia". In addition to the analysis of conversational texts, it also employed offline interviews of 43 participants and two focus group discussions. The study found that the identity constructed by urban youths as part of digital fandoms was fragmented into two subculture groups. The first was a group of fans consuming the popular culture in which they were interested with a deep emotional attachment, and developing fiction comprised of settings, storylines, and imaginary characters from it; the second was a group of fans categorized as the critics of the texts of popular culture who had an adequate level of media literacy for this purpose. Additionally, they were multi fandoms who were also fans of other popular cultures. This study proves that the youths' interest in global popular culture is not only due to the purpose of pleasure, but also because of their role as active prosumers, producers who create both cultural texts and paratexts which descend from their creativity.
Cultural identity, multi fandom, popular culture, prosumer, subculture, youth
This study aims at exploring the general trends of social anxiety in female university students observing the hijab in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. A survey approach was chosen to collect the data from private and public tertiary institutions from all over the country. The Social Anxiety Scale was sent to faculty working in various universities, who facilitated the data collection. The scale was distributed to 3000 female students wearing hijab out of which 1601 forms were returned. The tool deployed for the study had three sections: perceptions of participants regarding hijab, demographics and the actual tool. This tool had 15 items falling under three factors: (a) perceived self, (b) perceived social image, and (c) perceived peer response to self-image. Descriptive data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17. The findings showed that a majority of the participants had a very low and almost non-significant level of social anxiety, thus rejecting the hypotheses developed for the study. The results are a sounding board for those who consider this Islamic attire as one of the important factors in building up the anxiety level in university students.
Female university students, hijab, immigrant Muslims, self-image, social anxiety, veil
In Central Manggarai region of Flores, Indonesia, a policy of spatial clustering was introduced with the goal of enhancing productivity of the traditional weaving sector. This involved the installation of new weaving loom technology and skills training for weavers. This study of the subjectivities of women weavers and their perceptions of technological upgrading processes examines how policies designed without the participation of the people they aim to support can prompt adverse, contradictory outcomes.
Development, Indonesia, livelihoods, participation, technology
This study is intended to examine the levels of directors' remuneration disclosure among public-listed companies in Malaysia. It further aims to examine the relationship among total directors' remuneration, directors' education level, size of external auditors, and proportion of managerial ownership and directors' remuneration disclosure. The analysis is conducted based on three models, which are constructed from the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (Model 1), Global Practices (Model 2), and a combination of both Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance and Global Practices (Model 3). This study found that the size of external auditors had a positive significant relationship, while the proportion of managerial ownership had a negative significant relationship with the disclosure. This study contributes to the improvement of policymaking and body of knowledge by highlighting the relationship between the selected corporate governance characteristics and directors' remuneration disclosure in the context of Malaysia.
Audit firm, corporate governance, directors' remuneration, disclosure, Malaysia, managerial ownership
Islamic banks have grown very rapidly in recent years in Indonesia. Islamic banking has its own uniqueness in carrying out its activities based on Sharia law which employs the philosophy of Qur'an and Sunnah to provide good and efficient services. This study employed Practice Theory to identify the indicator of sustainability performance from an Islamic perspective. This research used qualitative and quantitative methods to find the measurement of sustainability performance for Islamic banking from an Islamic perspective in Indonesia. Performance measurement system's development requires a dynamic and balanced system in transcribing complex and huge information in terms of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach. This method provides the priority of attributing pairwise comparison. The 33 performance criteria will then be used as a priority consideration for the decision maker in measuring the Islamic banking sustainability performance. As a result, Islamic Banking sustainability performance is developed as the main priority is given to the environmental factor compared with social and economic.
Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Islamic banking, Islamic perspective, sustainability performance
Unlike the previous defined benefit pension scheme in Nigeria, the current contributory pension scheme (CPS) is characterised by separation of ownership and management of pension fund. In view of agency problem this portends, the need to empirically examine corporate governance (CG) practices of operators is of importance for CPS survival. Thus, this study examines corporate governance practices of operators of CPS in management and custody of the CPS fund. Survey data from 212 managers and assistant managers of CPS operators were analysed using one-sample t-test and mixed ANOVA. The results showed significant practices of CG mechanisms in the form of board independence, director independence, board disclosure and audit committee effectiveness. Significant difference was found in practice of above CG mechanisms. However, there was no significant difference in GC practices among various types of CPS operators. Similarly, the interaction of CG mechanisms with CPS operator type was also found to be insignificant. Based on the results, good corporate governance practices in the management of CPS fund is evident. However, it is recommended that there is an urgent need to intensify regulatory role of the part of CPS regulator- National Pension Commission to ensure that operators are not lacking behind in practices of various mechanisms of CG.
Cluster School of Excellence (CSE), a school base administrative system was introduced to ensure autonomy to school leaders to excel schools in both academic excellence and non-academic performance. This implied leadership changes and innovative practices for educators and policy makers, as active participation was expected in academic and co-curricular excellence at state, national and international events. Yet, limited literature is available on leadership competencies, practices and style expected of school leaders in aspiring CSE, which have potential to be awarded with a CSE status through its academic and curriculum evaluation by the Malaysian Education Quality Standard. For this exploratory study, face to face interviews were conducted with four selected staff in two aspiring schools of excellence in Perak region to understand the personal aspirations, practices and challenges faced by such administrators in its pursuit for excellence. The locality was chosen to ascertain the viable leadership qualities in such schools targeted to be future CSE. The findings signify the importance of leadership qualities; leadership style; personal human values; knowledge of personal and social environment; close rapport with stakeholders; active planning and innovative practices in academic and non-academic excellence via active community engagement sessions. Leaders voice the need for unwavering varied engagement and motivational sessions despite financial and individual challenges as the way forward in attaining the said educational excellence in both academic and non-curricular activities. It reaffirms the importance of innovative and creative leadership practices and leadership styles for leaders to in such aspiring schools to attain the CSE status.
Cluster school of excellence, communicative leadership style, education, innovative practices
The rising concerns for food safety and insecurity, coupled with environmental issues, push consumers to make ethical choices affecting their purchase behaviour. The demand trend for green food products is rising and fast-growing economies like Malaysia is not exempted. The green food products industry is in its infancy stage in Malaysia and stakeholders need consumer behavioural research to develop Malaysia's green food industry. Few contextual researches have been undertaken in Malaysia and therefore this study was conducted to determine the significance of the link between consumer behavioural factors and the intent to purchase green food products. An adapted extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) model was used in the study and the influence of Environmental Attitude (EA), Subjective Norm (SN), Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC), Environmental Knowledge (EK), Health Consciousness (HC) and Environmental concern (EC) on green product purchase intention was examined. A total of three hundred questionnaires were distributed in the Klang Valley and 284 usable responses received were used to examine the significance of relationships using multiple regression analysis. Findings indicated that EC, PBC, HC and SN had a significant relationship to Intent to Purchase (ITP) green food products. The factors that marketers should focus on are environmental concern, price, availability, health benefits and initiatives to promote environmental knowledge and attitude that may influence the purchase intentions positively.
Environment, green consumerism, green food products, Malaysia, purchase intention, theory of planned behaviour
This paper explored the influence of organisational citizenship behaviour on the relationship between organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), organisational commitment (OC) and organisational learning (OL) in hotels. The majority of studies conducted on this issue have thus far focused on the relationship between OCB and job satisfaction, and the results have been mixed. This study hypothesises that OC influences OCB and OL positively, and OCB influences OL positively. Using a quantitative research design, this study sampled 115 hotel staff in Tangerang Indonesia. A structured questionnaire was designed using a 5-point Likert scale. Data testing for reliability and validity was computed using SPSS software, and the data analysed using AMOS and interpreted based on SEM analysis. The result reveals that OL is not influenced by OC directly, but influenced by the OCB of an employee who has OC.
Maize constitutes an important source of calories and plays a crucial role in the livelihoods of most Africans. However, maize productivity in the continent remains low relative to other regions of the world. To improve the productivity of maize in the continent, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), launched the Stress Tolerant Maize for Africa (STMA) project in 2016. Employing a combination of the contingent valuation methodology and Heckman's two-step model, farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for the STM and levels of payment was analysed. The factors influencing farmers' WTP and their levels of payment was also investigated. Data from 165 randomly sampled maize-based farming households was analysed to achieve the study objectives. Results of the study showed that about 75% of the farmers were willing to pay for the STM varieties with an average price of N261.52/kg ($US0.8/ kg). Farm income, years of experience in farming, membership of social group and price of other maize seeds were found to be statistically significant factors influencing farmers' WTP. The payment level was found to be influenced by farm size, level of education of the household head and access to credit. Based on the results of the study, it is recommended that governments and other stakeholders in the development sector should encourage credit institutions to grant farmers access to credit to enable them to invest on improved technologies such as the STM in order to raise their productivity.
Fiscal sustainability has always been a lingering concern for developing countries like Pakistan. This study intends to verify the sustainability hypothesis by estimating a long run relationship between fiscal variables in Pakistan for a period 1976-2016. Dickey and Fuller Generalized Least Square (DF-GLS) and Ng-Perron unit root tests were used to determine the order of integration. Three most significant structural breaks had also been identified by using Bai and Perron test. Further, Fully Modified OLS (FMOLS), Dynamic OLS (DOLS) and Auto-Regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) cointegration techniques were employed to find the long run relation between public expenditures and revenues. After a long run analysis, the results depicted that fiscal policy was found to be weakly sustainable. Therefore, the present study suggests fiscal reforms to sustain the fiscal policy in the long run.
Cointegration, fiscal policy, public expenditures, public revenue, sustainability hypothesis
This paper analyses Edmund Spenser's sonnet sequence Amoretti and its concluding sequel Epithalamion within the context of Puritanism. By highlighting the Puritanical concepts in Spenser's two poetic works, the two researchers demonstrate the aspects in which Spenser parts ways with the Petrarchan sonnet tradition. Spenser offers a pure, Christian love that ends in holy matrimony as an alternative to the unsanctified, unrequited love in Petrarchan sonnets. Moreover, this research identifies the segments of Spenser's poems wherein Platonism is exceedingly manifested. Through the textual examination of the two aforementioned works, it becomes evident that nuances of the Puritan faith come to light in Spenser's depiction of a holy, Christian courtship and marriage, in his portrayal of the lady as an embodiment of heavenly light in contrast to the inferiority of earthly existence and in his parallel presentation of the lover's suffering for his angelic lady as an allegorical reflection of the agony endured by the Puritan to gain Heavenly Grace.
Amoretti, Edmund Spenser, Epithalamion, holy marriage, platonism, puritanism
This article focuses on sacred narratives found in Malaysia, in particular in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia and their potential contribution to the cultural tourism sector in Malaysia. Sacred narratives refer to oral stories regarding beliefs that were regarded as sacrosanct and inherited since time immemorial by the Malay society. In the traditional context, such stories provide a set of guidelines, rules and prohibitions to be observed in our daily lives. Apart from its correlation with traditional beliefs, this article argues that sacred narratives have an enormous potential to be fostered as one of the factors that can help to boost the country's tourism industry.In order to provide evidence, this article will examine the method used by some tour operators particularly in Langkawi Island and Mount Jerai, Kedah to highlight sacred narratives in those tourist locations that they were operating in as a tactic to attract tourists. Based on this success, this article suggests that the involved parties in the tourism industry should mobilise efforts in a more systematic manner to gather sacred stories, to promote the unique features of these stories through websites, as well as to shape and to place skillful storytellers of sacred narratives in the various tourist locations. This article suggests that concerned parties should exploit this advantage as a potential to boost cultural tourism, a sector that is currently growing in this country.
Cultural tourism, Malaysia, myth, sacred narratives, tradition
The researcher conducted this study from January 1st to 20th May 2018 (140 days) to find out the effectiveness of the socialization of Tafsir Inspirasi Quran in the Social Media (Tafsir Inspirasi Quran in the social media has been in existence since 2012. This research was conducted by seven members of the KITAP team in Indonesia. Data collection methods such as interviews, observations and review of documents were used. There were three stages of analysis i.e.; media analysis, conversation analysis, and network analysis. Data analysis method was done by data reduction or data process, data presentation and conclusion. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of socialization through Tafsir Inspirasi in social media. Social media is often ridiculed by religious leaders, and some even forbid the use of social media altogether. This research aims to find out if socialization through Tafsir Inspirasi in the social media is effective. The conclusion was that the four principles of Quran: divinity, humanity, morality and moderation are found in the three stages of method analysis: media, conversation and network analysis.
Effectiveness, KITAP, love letter, Quran, socialization, social media, Tafsir Inspirasi, WhatsApp
"Ziarah Puyang" in Indonesia means pilgrimage to a sacred grave. It is a compulsory tradition that must be carried out by every Muslim bride in some regions in Indonesia. It is a belief that a sacred grave holds considerable power, and prevents difficulties, failures and disasters from befalling the households of brides who make such pilgrimage. This long-standing tradition is practiced to this day in the village of Lubuk Rengas Banyuasin in South Sumatra and has been passed down from generation to generation. Those who practise this ritual are often termed as deviants because it is considered anathema and anti-Islam by the ulama. Despite this, the tradition continues to flourish in this village. It is therefore interesting to study: (1) how and when the tradition of ziarah Puyang began; (2) how this practice became ingrained into the faith of Indonesian Muslims and; (3) what are the Islamic views (Hadith) on this tradition. This study shows that Ziarah Puyang is a longstanding tradition in the village of Lubuk Rengas and which precedes the existence of the village itself. Secondly, it shows that the strong faith of the local community in this tradition has ensured its continuity till today although some of it runs against the tenets of Islam and violates the Islamic Law.
The general interpretation of poverty line index (PLI) is the measurement of poverty in Malaysia. However, by using this unidimensional poverty approach, it does not truly reflect the status of those who are poor. It is only confined to addressing the income or expenses debate, which does not reflect the actual living standards of the poor. Therefore, this study introduce the multidimensional poverty index (MPI) as an alternative method of poverty measurement. MPI is capable of identifying "Who is Poor" among the underprivileged in society. This paper aims to bridge the gap between the Orang Asli society's development and national policy from a multidimensional perspective. By applying the MPI to the Orang Asli population in Terengganu, this study is able to reveal the factors that have deprived the poor to the point of poverty. There are four dimensions used in this study such as education, health, standard of living, and wealth. The result shows 97.1% of the Orang Asli in Terengganu is deprived in livestock followed by waste management at 96.6%, years of schooling at 83.4%, and only 58.9% as an income indicator. The result also indicates that Sungai Pergam village is poorer compared to other villages based on the MPI measured. These findings prove that MPI is able to reveal the real reason behind poverty with accuracy. Therefore, this mode of measurement can also be applied to other targeted groups in order to achieve more effective poverty eradication programs.
Extreme poverty, indigenous people, poverty line index, Sungai Pergam, Terengganu
Regeneration of Sriwedariwayang orang/wong (literally, human puppet) art-observers is a complicated issue encountered by the Solo city art group. Wayang orang has long been becoming one of Surakarta's performing art icons and its continuity is a shared concern. The regeneration is influenced by many affecting factors, both internal and external, one of which is developed due to specific objectives. Internally, art-observers regeneration is difficult to accomplish since not all the wayang orang art-observers' descendants want to be wayang orang art-observers. Other factor is the difficulty of recruiting art-observers through bureaucracy. At present, the number of wayang orang art-observers with civil servant status is limited. When they reach the retirement age, no substitution is found yet. Other than civil servants art-observers, Sriwedari wayang orang group also recruits contract observers and other freelancers wishing to join the group. Objective conditions add to the difficulties of the regeneration of wayang orang art-observers. Social changes and shifts of cultural values leading to pragmatic and materialistic life style also affect wayang orang regeneration. Many of the spectators today seem to begin abandoning traditional art performance like wayang orang for a number of reasons, one of which people love to watch modernly presented media such as television, and internet. Mostly younger generations hold the belief that becoming wayang orang art-worker is materially less favourable. Wayang orang art-observers' efforts to regenerate need a strong of the government and community thorough participations to ensure that that precious cultural icon does not remain as a memory.
Art-worker regeneration, cultural icon, cultural values, performing art, social change, solo, Sriwedari, wayang orang
The purpose of this study is to explore the dimensions of service quality and test an integrative model to study the influence of service quality, image, and trust on customer loyalty in the Malaysian banking sector. In this study, the service quality model is enhanced to improve the bank's image. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to test the proposed research model. The proposed model indicates that delivering high-quality service can result in achieving the well-known image; the result also shows a positive relationship between image and trust, and trust and customer loyalty in both Islamic and conventional banks. Therefore, based on the findings, service quality, bank image and trust are considered to be antecedents of customer loyalty. Bank image is indirectly related to customer loyalty through trust.
Conventional bank, image, Islamic bank, loyalty, trust
The era of the Abbasid Dynasty has been viewed by many historians as the Golden Age in Islamic history, during which several technological and educational advancements occurred. Education was regarded as a very fashionable and crucial element of the Abbasid society after the Caliphs realised the necessity of knowledge and wisdom to power the wheel of progress. This research historically analyses education in the reign of the Abbasid Dynasty that marked the beginning of one of the brightest ages in Islamic history, in particular and human civilisation in general. It investigates the role of one of the leading libraries in medieval times as well as the contributions of caliphs who had devoted their time and wealth to help develop the House of Wisdom. The study also explores the emergence of the educational institution, particularly Bayt al-Hikmah (House of Wisdom) that preserved the reproductive translation movement, the knowledge transmission and the scientific progress, and in so doing, ensured the preservation of the knowledge and heritage of the ancient civilisations, contributing unprecedented discoveries to the western world which used these discoveries to progress. This study adopts a qualitative approach as its historical framework through which the authors analyse and investigate the development of the House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikmah) and its impact on similar libraries on the basis of credible and primary sources that marked one of the brightest ages of Islamic history. The historical basis of the research framework gathers relevant information about the House of Wisdom and some other related aspects.
Abbasid dynasty, caliphs, education, house of wisdom, knowledge transmission, reproductive translation movement
Rational and irrational tendencies have competed vigorously in legal thought in both Western and Islamic traditions. In Western tradition, the competition took place within the internal rational natural law school, as indicated by the split of this school into the irrational natural law school and the rational natural law school. In Islam, similar competition divided Muslim jurists into the traditionalists (ahl al-hadith) and rationalists (ahl al-ra'y). Within the Western tradition, the conflict continues and no compromise appears, while in Islam, irrational tendencies and rational tendencies have reached certain compromises. This article, using philosophical approach, seeks to find out the factors causing the failure of such compromises in the Western tradition and the achievement of such compromises in Islamic tradition. This article concludes that the conflict within natural law is more substantial and it denies any effort of compromises as it concerns with the very nature of law and its authoritative sources, whereas in Islam, basically, the disputes are merely about the methodological aspects, i.e. the methods of inferring the law from its shared sources.
Ahl al-hadith, ahl al-ra'y, natural law, rational and irrational tendencies
Cities across Indonesia attract tourists for several reasons. Yogyakarta is among the main tourism destinations, known primarily for its culinary tourism. One of the famous angkringan cuisines in Yogyakarta is found in the House of Raminten. Angkringan is a Javanese traditional rice, side dishes, and beverages with definitely inexpensive price, and it is mostly familiar as street food. The House of Raminten is well-known for its eccentric angkringan. Recognizing the importance of the brand in the customer's mind, the management of the House of Raminten continuously to develop the restaurant's brand positioning namely modern style of angkringan traditional. For tourists, the House of Raminten is known through information from an individual to another or from an individual to groups. The information widely spreads because the restaurant management applies gethok tular or 'word of mouth' as a marketing strategy. This research aims to investigate the power of word of mouth as a strategy to establish brand positioning in the House of Raminten. The theoretical framework employs in this research is AIDA model consisting of Attention (Awareness), Interest, Desire, and Action. This research employs qualitative method and case study approach. The results reveal that gethok tular or 'word of mouth' has an absolutely strong impact. The rapid consumer increase of the House of Raminten is caused by not only 'word of mouth', but also e-word of mouth and the establishment of brand positioning. Furthermore, this is also proven that the House of Raminten's consumers are mostly middle-class who use social media in their daily activities.
Angkringan, brand positioning, culinary, the House Raminten, word of mouth
The need to understand factors that predict turnover intention among call center workers is crucial and necessary to boost the performance, productivity and profitability of call centers. To identify the factors that initiate, sustain, and aggravate this behavior, the present study utilized a predictive design aimed at investigating turnover intention among call center agents within the call center industry in the Philippines. Self-report surveys were used to collect data drawn from 212 inbound call center agents in Metro Manila. Multiple regression was used to test whether job demands, job control, salary, burnout and social support predict turnover intention. The results indicated that three predictors accounted for 65% of the variance (R2 =0.43, F (4,207) = 38.33, p<0.01). The results of the regression indicated that job control (β = 0.16, p < 0.05), salary (β = -0.17, p < 0.05), and burnout (β = 0.66, p < 0.05) predicted turnover intention. On the other hand, results for social support (β = 0.05, p > 0.05) and job demands (β = -0.06, p > 0.05) were not significant. To examine whether other variables interacted with job demands and social support in predicting turnover intention, turnover intention scores were subjected in a three-way analysis of variance on two levels of job demands (high, low), two levels of social support (high, low), and two levels of job control (high, low). Main effect for job demands [F(1, 208)=14.744, p=0.00, ηp2= 0.07] was significant. The researchers discuss the practical implications and future research directions.
turnover intention, call center agents, call center industry, job demands-resources model, social support
Practice in Mind (PIM) Training is a combination of imagery and physical training program which consists of sevens PETTLEP components (i.e. Physical, Environment, Timing, Task, Learning, Emotion, Perspective). The imagery content in PIM training program also integrates the facilitative imagery direction and stimulus â€“ response propositions other than motivation, visual and kinesthetic directions. This study was conducted to determine the effects of PIM training on strategies used by the professional university football players during practice and competition condition. The experimental design was used and participants consisted of 21 players aged 19 to 30 years (M=22.95, SD= 2.79), with different years of experience. All represented UiTM FC football club and took part in the Malaysia premier league 2015. They were engaged in twelve days imagery â€“ physical practices. All players completed the Test of Performance Strategies Questionnaires two days after the first game and six weeks after the first assessment. The results showed that the problem â€“ solving strategies like imagery and relaxation increased after twelve days of PIM training during practices condition. Additionally, during competition condition, players showed some increment in using imagery, goal setting, self-talk and activation method. The present study recommends using PIM training or for the whole league season. The need of team psychologist to train and help coaches to improve skills performance and psychological states of the players needs further investigation.
Competition, football players, performance strategies, PIM training, practice
The main economic issues faced by the registered Malaysian homestay program are the issues of competition from unregistered homestays, local community employment and the tourism multiplier effect of homestays. This research investigates the relationship between destination competitiveness, employment and multiplier effect and homestay sustainability from the homestay owners' perspective. The objective of this study is to measure homestay sustainability using destination competitiveness, employment, and the multiplier effect. Survey questionnaires were given to the 254 homestay owners using cluster sampling method. To analyze the data, Partial Least Square (PLS) approach to Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used. The findings of this study confirm the significant relationships between destination competitiveness and multiplier effect with homestay sustainability. The most important finding is that the homestay owner confirms that the unregistered homestays are not a threat to the competitiveness of the registered homestay program. Secondly, registered homestays do have the multiplier effect and provide a steady financial overflow to the homeowners' and the other stakeholders within the local community. The findings also suggest no significant relationship between employment and homestay sustainability.
Destination competitiveness, economic sustainability, employment, homestay, Malaysia, multiplier effect