This study presents the application of dichotomous choice contingent valuation method (CVM) to value outdoors-recreational resources in Manukan Island, Sabah. Both the logit and probit models are used to analyze the primary data obtained through personal interview. The maximum likelihood estimates of this model show that income and price are significant variables in determining one is willingness to pay (WTP). The WTP figure derived from the model shows that it is much higher than present fees charged to the visitors. This study has also estimated the revenue that could be derived is the fees were charged according to the WTP framework.
Dichotomus contingent valuation method, outdoors-recreational resources, willingness to pay, Manukan Island
This is a psychoanalytic reading of K.S. Maniam's play 'The Sandpit: Womensis" through Laura Mulvey's theory of the male gaze. The findings point to the fact that 'woman' on stage has most often been constructed by men, to be viewed by other men and other women as an object, not a subject. The female character Santha may be seen as taking up the position of the masculine protagonist in expressing her fetishisation of another female character Sumathi as an object of sexual desire. While Santha is represented as older, traditional and asexual, Sumathi's behavior and appearance are coded as sexually confident and provocative. In this play the female characters enter a discourse in the male subject position and they occupy this constructed space 'docilely'. Thus, the women are able to expose the oppressive representation of the female body as ideological, but are unable to affirm a more adequate one. As a consequence the women are still constructed by male hegemony, lacking a speaking voice. This psychoanalytic reading provides us with a sophisticated understanding of women's present cultural condition. However, it also seems to confine women forever to the status of one who is seen, spoken about, and analysed.
Feminist theory, K.S. Maniam, Indian women, female body, male gaze, Laura Mulvey, fetishism, Malaysian playwright
This study empirically investigates the presence of non-linearity in the Malaysian stock market, employing the Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman (BDS) and Hinich bispectrum tests. The BDS results reveal that the characteristics of the returns series in the Malaysian stock market are driven by non-linear mechanisms. Subsequent application of the Hinich bispectrum test confirms the results of the BDS test. The result of the present study has strong implications on the empirical work involving the Malaysian stock market as the existence of non-linearity suggests the inappropriateness of using linear methods for drawing inferences.
Non-linearity, BDS test, Hinich bispectrum test, stock market, Malaysia
The political strength of an environmental NGO depends on many factors including funds, leadership, expertise, political support and the size of membership. Membership size can influence the success or failure of the group. Usually, large membership means more labour can be deployed for grass roots activities and also more income through payment of fees. Two main objectives of the study were to understand the socio-economic profiles of members of an environmental NGO and identify their reasons for membership. A questionnaire was developed and made available on-line to all members of the NGO for a period of one month. In addition, it was circulated during the NGO's Annual General Meeting. In the end, one hundred completed questionnaires were returned and analysed. The results revealed that membership of the NGO comprise mainly of young professionals of the middle income group working in the private sector. They learn about the NGO mainly through friends who are members. The majority of them indicated that they joined the NGO because they wanted to support the noble goal of protecting nature through voluntary activities. The results suggest that, in its campaign for membership, the NGO should project an image of a group that champions nature protection as well as a hub for voluntary work. The findings of the study support the theory that common interest is one of the prime motivators of voluntary group membership.
Environmental NGO, membership profile, reasons for membership
This research sought to understand how a multi-ethnic society interprets a development-oriented television programme. In other words, it dwelt into the reception activities of the people from various cultural backgrounds as they watched such a programme. The integration of the Social Sciences method of inquiry and the Humanities enabled a comparative empirical analysis to be carried out on this topic specifically between the media and the audience discourses. A preliminary study was first conducted with a purpose of identifying issues that were to be incorporated into the structured questionnaire which were later used in the focus group sessions. The focus group was the main method of inquiry through which data were collected from various study groups and comparatively assessed. From the findings we found that different ethnic groups made sense of the television programme in a complex and manipulated way, thus, resulting in the production of various meanings that reflect their personal invested interests. The study also supported that interpretations of television programme content were social and discursive. The socially bounded factors of the respondents such as their cultures, working style and attitude and educational level were found to have contributed to the shaping of the respective decoding behaviours. Their predispositions came into play as they relate to the particular media contents forcing them to take different decoding positions. The Parkin's Theory of Meaning Systems (1972) help to measure these decoding positions and described them as the dominant, the negotiation and the oppositional However, this study suggested that a more flexi measure if developed could account for complexity and multi-variability in meaning making of media messages. Interestingly, this study also indicated that the subject of development could also be analyzed from the communication viewpoint using the significant communication models. In particular, the present Malaysian development strategies, with special reference to the challenges of Vision 2020, were "analyzed through the interpretation of the respondents on the selected television programme. The respondents were very concerned about the perception that the development policies were politically-bound, thus causing certain level of anxiety among the different ethnic groups with different dominant level. Meanings produced as a result of interactions with media contents are not conceived merely at the psychological level of the users but often reaching the realm of the sociological influences too. The study suggested that a similar research be conducted in other multi-ethnic societies in other parts of the world.
Social and cultural influences, reception, development-oriented television programme, The Parkin's Theory of Meaning Systems
This paper is an exploration of female relationships using feminist and psychoanalytic approaches in reading a British play "Neaptide." The findings provide us a unique way of explaining the bondage between mother-daughter relationships, and it also tells us that in the play "Neaptide" Sarah Daniels offers a positive future to her two female protagonists because both have been rescued by their mother Joyce. Daniels uses the Demeter-Persephone myth to illustrate the limited choices that her female character Joyce has in handling her family crisis. Like Demeter, Joyce keeps her family together by delivering them from male domination: Val from her unhappy marriage with Colin, and Claire and Poppy from the devious and ruthless Lawrence. Claire's bold and honest public confession of herself as a lesbian has clearly entailed suffering and sacrifice. However, Joyce has made the right decision to help both her daughters to get out of their predicaments.
Female solidarity, lesbian-feminist approach, Sarah Daniels, coming out, pre-oedipal bonding, psychoanalysis, female bonding, lesbianism, British playwright
Makalah ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji secara deskriptif mengenai maklumat-maklumat jarring bahasa Arab. la menyingkap beberapa laman web utama Arab seperti http://eyoon.fares.net, http://www, sendbad.net/, http://www.alsaha.com/ dan beberapa laman web utama yang lain. Di sini, penulis akan membandingkan antara laman-laman web utama ini dari pelbagai aspek kebahasaan dan pemerolehan maklumat. Di samping itu, penulis juga akan memfokuskan kepada dua kemahiran bahasa yang dapat dicapai melalui media internet, iaitu kemahiran mendengar dan kemahiran membaca. Kedua-dua kemahiran ini dapat dipertingkatkan melalui penggunaan beberapa laman web yang terpilih seperti http://www.islampedia.com, http://islamway.com/ dan selainnya. Penulis yakin, kesemua maklumat yang terdapat dalam makalah ini amat penting dalam mengembangkan pemikiran dan pembelajaran serta pengajaran bahasa Arab di negara ini selari dengan perkembangan multimedia di era globalisasi ini.
Media internet, laman web, aspek kebahasaan, kemahiran mendengar dan membaca, Multimedia
The Malaysian electronic and electrical sub-sector has been the most important component of the nation's manufacturing sector. As is widely known, the sector has played a vital role in the nation's export, employment as well as overall economic growth. Considering the importance of the subsector, it is imperative that we ensure sustainable growth of the sub-sector and that competitiveness is maintained or even improved. This study is particularly aimed at investigating the linkages between output, productivity, wage and labour. As is widely acknowledged, wages may increase as long as it is commensurate with a higher increase in productivity. However, changes in wages can actually affect employment. Unit root tests indicate that all of the above variables are 1(1). Johansen's procedure was conducted to see the long run and short run relationships between the variables. The Johansen cointegration test results revealed that a long-run equilibrium relationship exists among the variables. From the short run dynamic analysis, we found that except for real wages, labour productivity and employment are statistically significant in influencing output.
Output, wages, productivity, electronic and electrical industries, employment
Tujuan kajian ini ialah untuk menentukan nilai kerja di kalangan pekerja kilang di daerah Hulu Langat, Selangor. Sebanyak 451 orang pekerja kilang telah dipilih secara rawak untuk menjadi sampel kajian. Soal selidik digunakan untuk mengumpul data tentang latar belakang dan nilai kerja responden. Dapatan menunjukkan pekerja kilang menganggap jaminan pekerjaan, perkembangan kerjaya, ganjaran ekonomi, keadaan tempat kerja, kreativiti, gaya hidup dan hubungan antara pekerja penting kepada mereka. Mereka tidak begitu mementingkan nilai kerja autonomi dan prestij. Selain itu, data menunjukkan terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan antara pekerja lelaki dan perempuan bagi nilai kerja kreativiti, hubungan antara pekerja dan autonomi. Pekerja lelaki didapati lebih mementingkan nilai-nilai tersebut berbanding pekerja wanita.
Nilai kerja, soal selidik, pekerja kilang, autonomi, kreativiti
Second language (L2) learners have problems when acquiring relative clauses (Hawkins and Chan 1997; Wong 1999). This study examines and attempts to explain the learners' competence in the use of relative clauses. The L2 learners are LI (first language) speakers of Malay who were gauged to have elementary proficiency in English by the Oxford Placement Test. A grammaticality judgment task (GJT) was administered to determine the subjects* ability to distinguish between the grammatical and ungrammatical forms of relative clauses. The task revealed the students' acquired competence in this particular area. This competence is further examined in the context of a production task which gauged their ability to form relative clauses through sentence combining. Results from the GJT showed consistently low scores for a variety of extractions from various positions in the formation of relative clauses. This is further supported by the results obtained from the sentence-combination task where the production of correct sentences using relative clauses was the focus. In sum, the Malay learners failed to recognise and produce appropriate relative clause constructions. The data confirmed other findings that relative clauses are a source of difficulty for these L2 learners and these findings have pedagogic implications for the learning of this essential grammar component.
Second language acquisition, relative clauses, grammaticality judgement task, learners' competence, sentence combination, relativisation