Volunteer work is always associated with free and unpaid employment and is never accounted for in the national data of Malaysia. This paper argues that voluntary work should be made visible by according it with economic value for it to be part of the national asset of the country. The empirical basis of this paper is reflected in a research survey conducted in 2003 on the tangible and intangible contributions of the public service retirees who belonged to the Professional and Managerial group within the Malaysian civil service. It is premised on the belief that providing a decent and liveable monetary value to the retirees' voluntary contribution in community development would usher in more retirees to come forward to engage in meaningful and productive work during the so-called transition period of their waking life.
Voluntary action, ageing, volunteerism, Malaysia, visibility of work
Since the advent of religiosity as a field of scientific inquiry, it has been under the domain of psychologists of religion. The approach taken toward conceptualizing religiosity, therefore, has always been one purported to be of religious universalism. However, the overwhelming majority of religiosity instruments to date have fallen under the rubric of Christianity and the study of Christian people. As the desire to learn more about the religious life of the non-Christian traditions and people spreads, there is an increasing need for religiosity concepts and instruments to reflect these particular religious traditions. The role of religious worldview, therefore, is a major consideration in the instrumentation of religiosity, as worldview provides an underlying philosophical foundation for the operationalization of religiosity concepts, constructs and items. As the preponderance of religiosity instrumentation to date has been grounded in the judeo- Christian religious worldview, existing religiosity instrumentation is also reflective of it, and as such, does not adequately represent the uniqueness of other non-Judeo-Christian worldviews such as the Islamic tawhidic worldview. As such, the current study aimed to provide a general overview of religiosity conceptualization in general, along with some of the major gaps in religiosity research for Muslims. In response, the paper concludes with the presentation of a basic religiosity model rooted in the tawhidic worldview of Islam, upon which the Muslim Religiosity-Personality Inventory (MRPI) was based.
Acknowledging the significance of youth associations in capacity-building of Malaysian youths, a research was conducted to identify "best practices" in youth development work among the youth associations in Malaysia. This was a case study which analyzed a particular youth association that received the Best "Youth" Association national award in 2004. The data were gathered through in-depth interviews, document reviews and analysis, and observations. The data were analyzed using qualitative statistical methods. Nine key enablers - defined best practices that facilitate the desired progress and impact accomplished by the association - were identified: (1)environment that supports youth development needs and capacities, (2) sound, integrated need-based program that attracts members and the broader community, (3) strong support of the community, (4) strong linkage and partnership/collaborative approach with government and non-governmental agencies on youth work, (5) commitment of the members through their engagement in youth work, (6) committed and competent leaders and committee members who share objectives and directions, (7) reliable administration coupled with availability of supportive infrastructure, (8) continuous monitoring and evaluation of programs and activities, and (9) sustainable funding. Implications of the findings and future challenges were discussed.
Best practices, youth association, benchmarking, Malaysia
This is an exploratory study involving the Malaysian retirees from the Premier and Managerial and Professional sectors of the Malaysian Public Service. It examined the extent of the retirees‘ involvement, motivation and preference in relation to engaging in volunteerism in the country. Methodologically, a mailed-survey questionnaire was conducted to elicit the information and opinion of 261 retirees throughout Malaysia, including Sabah and Sarawak. Based on the findings, these retirees were more than willing to volunteer in religious, social, educational or community type of organization especially to those who needs their expertise. These retirees expressed concerns about the widely-accepted public conditioning that they were no longer productive and could therefore be relegated to the background as far as their relevance was concerned.
Retirees, older adults, volunteerism, ageing, Malaysian public service, community Development
As Malaysia continues towards its goal of Vision 2020, the youth of today move closer to becoming the first leaders of a fully developed Malaysia. Currently, however, youth's - the Muslim youth in particular - lifestyles are changing and there is great concern over the socially precariousbehaviours in which many young people are engaging. Though Islam and its rich history are evidence of the efficacy of religion in upwardly transforming human beings in any time or place, the current prevalence of a variety of social problems among Muslims has raised many questions in relation to the Islamic understanding and practice. As such, there is an urgent need to understand and assess the key areas of the religious commitment among the youth - also known as religiosity - and begin to explore in the what ways it might act in as an asset within the nation building process. In response to this need, the Institute for Community and Peace Studies (PEKKA) at UPM, along with the researchers from UKM, undertook a two-and-a-half year IRPA initiative to develop the religiosity 'norms' for the selected groups of Malaysian Muslim youth as a first step toward understanding their religiosity in a broader context. Overall, the three-phase initiative aimed to: 1) define religiosity from the Islamic perspective; 2) develop a measurement instrument for assessing Islamic religiosity; and 3) obtain religiosity normed scores for the selected groups of Muslim youth. The current paper presents the Islamic religiosity model and instrument constructs, along with some initial findings that indicate relatively higher scores by the respondents on the Islamic Worldview construct (Islamic understanding) than on the Religious Personality construct (application of Islamic teachings in everyday life). This research ultimately aims to inform policy makers and practitioners at all levels of youth work with the goal of developing interventions to enhance the aspects of the youth religiosity.
This study tested the assumption that national media played an important role in promoting a strong national ethos among Malaysians. As youth are heavy consumer of media and play important roles in further progressing the country economically and politically, it is very pertinent to examine the strength of the national ethos among the Malaysian youth of various ethnic groups, and the relationship between the exposure to the news media and strength of their national ethos. A total of 606 students from ten universities and colleges aged between 18 to 27 years were interviewed in a national survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Three dimensions of the national ethos emerged from the data and the students had positive perceptions toward selected characteristics of the country. However, there is a significant difference among the three ethnic groups in their degree of attachment to the three different dimensions of the national ethos. An overall exposure to the news media has a positive and significant relationship with the shared identity and future dimension, and shared history and values dimension of the national ethos.
News media, exposure, attachment, national ethos, youth, multicultural society
There are thousands of retirees from the Premier and Managerial and Professional (PMP) group of the Malaysian Public Service who, after the mandatory retirement at the age of fifty-five or fifty-six, could contribute to the community gleaning from an improved longevity index for both male and female Malaysians in the recent years. This article attempted to decipher the difference between volunteer and non-volunteer retirees as far as the role of psychosocial and altruistic factors are concerned and what this difference would imply as far as motivating other retirees toengage in the voluntary work for the development of the Malaysian society. The psychosocial dimension includes the environment, lifestyle, personality and resources while altruism includes empathy, reciprocity and spirituality. Independent sample t-test was used to determine whether there was a significant difference for the psychosocial variables and altruism between the volunteers and non-volunteers. Findings of the study revealed that there was a significant difference between the volunteers and non-volunteers by looking at the effects of both psychosocial and altruism further indicating that these volunteers were more altruistic and whose psychosocial factors greatly influenced the volunteers' propensity to render voluntary service to the community.
A major developmental task during adolescent is the development of a sense of identity. The success of this stage of development will be the basis for development in the next stage of the developmental as a youth; where the development task is to build intimate relationship. Youth with a strong sense of self-esteem will establish better relationship and greater intimacy with another person. In this aspect, theatre is identified as one of the common developmental programs used because through performing, the youth are able to project a new identity and discover themselves. The study was aimed at identifying the extent of the self-esteem development among the youth as a result of participating in theatre performances and identifying the most influential theatre performance elements that contributed to the development of self-esteem. The findings of the study indicated that youth who participated in the theatre performances had a higher level of self-esteem.
This paper is part empirical and part theoretical. It argues that for volunteerism to be a permanent feature in the society there must be a public policy that encourages, motivates and appreciates the value of volunteerism, and that it should be consciously acknowledged in the community. To be able to create this sense, a new developmental view on the contributive roles of the ageing population must be in place in the policy intervention. Malaysia, a rapidly industrializing country in the Asian region, must recognize the fact that a great number of willing and committed retirees could be tapped as potential volunteer workers for the continuing development of the broader community.
Voluntary work, retirees, Malaysia, older women, ageing, participation, ageing policy