The purpose of this paper is to present findings of a factorial-experimental study which investigated the effects of the additional time and examination format in minimizing the language gap faced by hearing impaired students when answering Malay Language question paper in the Primary School Assessment (UPSR). Three formats were tested in this study, namely, Ordinary Format, DEAS I Format and DEAS II Format. Thirty-six hearing impaired students who were in Form One from Seremban, Melaka and Muar were separated into three experimental groups with equal level of Malaysian Language. All the groups answered the comprehension and essay question in the Malaysian Language examination in the actual time and additional time simultaneously. Questionnaires (to teacher and students), interviews, and observation were also conducted. Results showed that for all the three formats, the subjects performed better in extra time than regular time. A comparison of the performance based on the formats revealed higher achievement in the comprehension and writing sections set in regular time and extra time for the subjects exposed to the DEAS II Format. Therefore, extra time and DEAS II Format are successful in minimizing the language gap between hearing impaired students and normal students in the examination. In more specific, the adaptive approach used in DEAS II Format enables a fair assessment of hearing impaired students’ capabilities. Meanwhile, the findings from the questionnaires and interviews showed that both the teachers and students agreed that extra time and appropriate examination format could improve the achievements of hearing impaired students during the examination.
Hearing impaired and hard of hearing, examination, sign language, assessment, achievement
The objective of this study was to measure teachers’ perception towards the implementation of inclusive education in Penang, Malaysia. This study involved 133 mainstream teachers and 37 special education teachers from Penang. Research instrument for this study was adapted from the instrument Contexts, Input, Process and Product, which was introduced by Stufflebeam in 1971. This study involved a questionnaire that contains two sections. Section A is on teachers’ demography and Section B concerns with the factors that contribute to the teachers’ perception towards the implementation of inclusive education. The results of this study are discussed in terms of frequencies, percentages, independent t-test and One-Way ANOVA. The results showed that 32.35% of the respondents have positive perception and 50.59% have moderate perception towards the implementation of inclusive education. On the other hand, this study also revealed that 17.06% of the respondents have negative perception towards the implementation of inclusive education. The findings of this study also highlighted that different types of teachers and their academic qualification do influence or create the difference in term of their perception towards the implementation of inclusive education. In addition, the findings of this study also showed that there is a positive relationship between the types of teachers and their perception towards the implementation of inclusive education.
Inclusive education, teachers’ perception, special education teachers
Personality is a multidimensional psychological construct that can influence the way students engage in learning and their academic performance. This study aimed to examine the relationships between the different personality domains and students’ academic performances in Malaysian context. The sample consisted of 360 students (Male, n = 180; Female, n = 180) from five randomly chosen secondary schools in a state in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. A quantititave survey approach was used in this study. In particular, the Malay Version Five-Factor Personality Inventory (NEO-FFI) was used to measure the students’ personality domains while their academic achievement was denoted by Grade Point Average (GPA). Inferential statistics revealed that there were no gender differences in the different personality domains, except for neuroticism, where females had recorded a higher mean score. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis revealed that openness and conscientiousness were positively related to Malaysian students’ academic achievements. Finally, regression analysis has confirmed that the two variables accounted for the changes in students’ academic performances. The findings have significant implications for education matters.
Big-Five personality, neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experiences, greeableness, conscientiousness
The aim of this paper was to examine the phonology of suffixation and prefixation in Malay, particularly the phonological alternations that are derived due to the morphological process of affixation. It is apparent that the phonological behaviour of suffixation in this language is quite distinct, both in terms of character and degree of generality from prefixation. Rules that are visibly active at the stem-prefix juncture are not permissible at the stem-suffix juncture, and vice versa. This asymmetry has not been satisfactorily accounted for in previous works. The present analysis attempted to account for this irregularity by adopting the theoretical framework of Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 2004). The apparent irregularity is accounted for as a consequence of a candidate output satisfying more dominant constraints in the hierarchy. The relevant constraints that play significant roles here are the alignment constraints of the prosody-morphology interface, which require that the edge of some grammatical category coincide with the edge of some prosodic category. The prefix-stem boundary is controlled by ALIGN-PREF, requiring that the right edge of a prefix coincides with the right edge of a syllable, while the stem-suffix boundary is governed by ALIGN-SUF, requiring that the left edge of a suffix coincides with the left edge of a syllable, and ALIGN-STEM, requiring that the right edge of a stem coincide with the right edge of a syllable. ALIGN-SUF and ALIGN-STEM are higher ranked than ALIGN-PREF in the hierarchy. This schematic ranking straightforwardly explains the irregularity in the prefixation and suffixation in Malay.
This exploratory study aims to investigate if computer games can expand learners’ vocabulary and improve their writing performance. In testing the research instruments and procedure of a larger project, this pilot study employed only ten Form Four students who had voluntarily taken part in this study, and they were exposed to two different methods of acquiring vocabulary over a period of fourteen weeks. The two methods of vocabulary acquisition were computer games and traditional vocabulary strategies. The first method involved the subjects playing computer vocabulary games from the Internet for seven weeks. In the second method they employed traditional vocabulary strategies such as using a dictionary, contextual clues and semantic mapping for the next seven weeks. The extent of the subjects’ vocabulary acquisition in the two methods was measured by using the pre and post vocabulary tests and two written essays. Results indicate a significant difference between the pre and post vocabulary tests. However, no significant difference was found between the two essays in terms of vocabulary richness. Such results might be attributable to the short duration of the treatment.
Vocabulary acquisition, computer games, traditional strategies, lexical frequency
The primary objectives of this study were to examine: 1) fathers’ parenting styles, and 2) the relationships between selected variables within the family ecosystems (e.g., father’s age, education, work hours, income, and psychological distress, child’s age and sex, as well as family income, number of children in the family, and marital quality) and fathers’ parenting styles within the Chinese families in Malaysia. One hundred fathers, with children between the ages of 7 to 10 years from two-parent Chinese families residing in three urban cities in the state of Selangor in Malaysia, participated in the current study. Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire which consisted of the following measures: Edwards Parenting Scale, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale – K10, Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale, and a Demographic Sheet. Descriptive analyses reveal that the proportion of the respondents practicing authoritative (37.0%) parenting styles was the highest, and this was followed by authoritarian (34.0%) and permissive (29.0%). styles. Correlation analyses indicated that fathers’ level of psychological distress and the number of children in the family significantly and positively related to the authoritarian parenting style, whereas fathers’ level of education and report of marital quality significantly and positively related to authoritative parenting style, with the number of children being significantly and negatively related to the authoritative parenting style. Findings are interpreted in line with the Chinese cultural expectations for fathering behaviour.
Fathers, parenting styles, Chinese families, Malaysia
By the beginning of the last quarter of the twentieth century, it had become clear that the Maori language, the natural vehicle of Maori culture, was in danger of dying out. From the 1980s onwards, the Government of New Zealand, in collaboration with Maori community leaders, has invested substantial resources in an effort to revitalize the language. As a means of learning from the success of this project, the present study focuses on New Zealand’s language-in-education policy. It presents a descriptive review of historical factors and of educational programs and policies devised in response to the indigenous people’s call to save the Maori language and culture from extinction. Problems with the reform programmes are also addressed, taking into account economic, social, cultural and attitudinal factors prevailing in New Zealand society at the time.
Maori, language revitalization, language planning, history of Maori, Kohanga reo (language nursery programs, tomorrow’s schools)
The role of economic generating activities, through entrepreneurship development to combat poverty and increase the well being of rural areas for living, is very clear. Indeed, when the enterprises are running as a family business. Focusing on the development of the enterprise to increase the multiple impacts on the well being of the surrounding society and the family of the entrepreneur seems essential for every country. Therefore, to understand the dynamics of family business through profiling the family entrepreneurs is crucial. This paper explores the profile of Malaysian rural entrepreneurs in the Malaysian family business producing processed food, and suggests profile related issues in the development of family business from the perspective of entrepreneurs. Data were collected through interviewing entrepreneurs who were members of Women Extension Group (KPW) from 11 states in Peninsular Malaysia in 2008 with the assistance of the Department of Agriculture (DOA). Structured questionnaires were administered to 735 respondents. The findings of this paper contribute to both policy development and the understanding of the dynamics of rural family business.
Rural development, micro enterprise, poverty, gender and entrepreneurship
Being old is often associated with poverty, as a result of limited access to financial resources due to retirement or deterioration in health. The high incidence of poverty among the elderly is a global concern. How much the elderly have is important but how they use what they have is equally important. This paper focuses on financial practice and problems of the elderly in Malaysia. Data used in the analysis were collected in 2004 from among 2,327 elderly aged between 55 and 75 years. Samples were selected using multi stage systematic sampling. Financial practice was measured using 12 statements representing four dimensions, namely, planning, cash management, credit and investment. Financial problems were measured using seven items with two dimensions, namely, daily problems and credit management. In general, the elderly in the study performed basic financial practice (planning and cash management) but a lower percentage of these elderly performed credit and investment plans. About one third of elderly had experienced at least one of the seven financial problems listed. Multiple regression analysis conducted to explore the factors explaining variation in financial practice revealed that the model explained 20.7% variation in the financial practice score. The variable significantly explained the variations in the financial practice score were gender, age, region, ethnicity, education, home ownership, health perception, and income. A further research is needed to better understand the dynamic of financial practice among the elderly.
Data from the 2008 Consumer Empowerment in a Globalized Market were used to examine factors associated with giving good self-rating on consumer knowledge and to identify the gap between self-rated and actual consumer knowledge among low income housing residence in Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. Those who claimed to know their rights and responsibilities as consumers and knew about the Consumer Protection Act 1999 are more likely to have good self-rated consumer knowledge. However, those in the lowest 20% income quintile and middle 20% income quintile are less likely than the top 20% income quintile to have good self-rated consumer knowledge. A high percentage of the respondents knew about and correctly stated their rights and responsibilities as consumers. On the contrary, only a few knew about the legislation that protected consumers and redress mechanism, indicating that they were not quite well-versed with a ‘higher level’ of consumer knowledge which is vital for their empowerment in the marketplace.
Consumer Economics, consumer knowledge, consumer competency, low income consumers
Children with autism are often associated with behavioural problems such as being restless and fidgety; exhibiting tendencies to touch and hit people; being noisy (shouting or screaming); temper tantrums, being inattentive; non-compliance; spaced out; and body stiff. These behavioural patterns might be extreme and highly apparent or more subtle. Hence, music and movement therapy was developed to help improve the behaviours of children with autism. There were a total of 41 children who participated in the research, and they were divided into two groups and two sessions. Group 1 comprised of 18 children (5 girls and 13 boys). The age of the children in Group 1 ranged from 2 to 10 years old. Meanwhile, Group 2 comprised of 23 children (2 girls and 21 boys). The age of the participants in Group 2 ranged from 11 to 22 years old. The music therapy was carried out weekly and two sets of music therapy were used alternately for 10 months. The duration for each session was an hour. A Target Behaviour Checklist was also developed for the study purpose. The parents, music teachers and research assistant evaluated the child’s behaviour on an average of once a month for 10 months. One-way ANOVA and T-test were used to examine whether there was a significant change or improvement in the target behaviours among the two groups of children. The findings demonstrated that music and movement therapy has positive effects on the behaviours of these children, especially in helping children with autism to improve in restlessness, fidgety, temper tantrum and inattentive behaviours.
Children with autism, modify behaviour, music and movement therapy, target behaviour checklist
Over the last four decades, researchers in many countries have shown increasing interest in the conceptualization, assessment, and investigation of students’ perceptions of psychosocial dimensions of their classroom environment. Research conducted over the past 40 years has shown the quality of the classroom environment in schools to be a significant determinant of student learning. However, not many studies, especially in the state of Sabah, Malaysia, were conducted to examine the tertiary Science learning environment and its relationship with students’ attitudes towards Science. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the perceptions of actual and preferred Science learning environment at tertiary level and the attitudes towards Science among pre-service science teachers in Sabah, Malaysia. This study was also aimed to ascertain the difference in students’ perceptions of Science learning environment and the attitudes towards Science based on gender. This was a non-experimental quantitative research and survey method was used to collect data. Samples were selected by using a cluster random sampling technique. The College and University Classroom Environment Inventory (CUCEI) was adopted to measure pre-service Science teachers’ perceptions of Science learning environment. Seven subscales of the CUCEI measured were Personalization, Cooperation, Student Cohesiveness, Equity, Task Orientation, Innovation, and Individualization. Pre-service Science teachers’ attitudes towards science were measured using the ‘Test of Science-Related Attitudes’ (TOSRA). The seven subscales measured in TOSRA were Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Inquiry, Adoption of Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. Independent samples t-test, Pearson product-moment correlation, and multiple linear regression analysis were used to test the stated null hypotheses at a predetermined significance level, alpha = .05. Correlation analysis results showed that there were low to moderate, positive and significant correlations between the actual and preferred Science learning environment and the attitudes towards science. CUCEI subscales can be used to explain appreciable amounts of variance in pre-service Science teachers’ attitudes towards science.
Science learning environment, attitudes towards science, pre-service science teachers, College and University Classroom Environment Inventroy (CUCEI), Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA)
This study examined the production of English monophthong vowels of native speakers of Thai. The results of the acoustic analysis of Thai English (ThaiE) monophthongs suggest the influence of Thai on ThaiE in the maintenance of length contrast between vowel pairs. The results also indicate transference of Thai vowel quality to comparable English vowels / i?/, /e/, /u?/, / ??/ and /æ/. One of the effects of this influence is the maintenance of the vowel contrast between /e/ and /æ/ in ThaiE. These findings lend some support to Flege’s (1995) Speech Learning Model which posits that second language sounds which have phonetic similarity to those in the first language will tend to be merged. The findings contribute empirical evidence to and complement existing research on Thai English pronunciation.
This paper reports on the crucial role that written feedback has in the development of students’ writing skills. Using the think-aloud method, I investigated how a student writer interacted with the feedback comments when she revised her paper. As the think-aloud method offers direct access to the thought processes of an individual, the participant, thinking aloud while responding to feedback is engaged in a process that is essentially social. This contributes to her cognitive changes via interactions with the feedback giver through written commentaries. The findings highlight two aspects of the writer’s interactions with feedback. First, feedback is viewed as a social activity, and secondly, as a form of dialogic activity that promotes interaction between the writer and the reader (feedback giver). The implication is that interactions with written feedback enabled the writer to externalize her thoughts as she internalized the meaning of feedback by means of thinking aloud that leads to the development of her writing skills.
Interactions, social and dialogical activities, think-aloud protocols, thought processes, and written feedback
The novel The Price of Dignity (the Malay original is Harga Sebuah Maruah, henceforth Tpd) by Azizi Haji Abdullah came in second place in the Writing Competition in Honour of the Golden Jubilee Celebrations of The Institute of Language and Literature 2006. According to the official competition report, the strength of the novel lies in its storytelling aspects, such as its technique, sequencing of events, seamless flow, the compact nature of its plot, as well as the lack of authorial intrusion in its narrative development. This article uses as its analytical framework a number of key ideas from Persuratan Baru, especially the differentiation between knowledge and the story, and the emphasis on the usage of discourse as the medium for the transmission of knowledge. This article analyses the extent to which the judging panel complied with their own criteria in their evaluation of the novel, and in their justifications for the award of the second prize to Tpd. In relation to that, the article also analyses Tpd to explore the extent to which the novel itself can be considered as having adhered to the criteria outlined by the panel, and corresponded to their justifications. The article contests the panel’s judgment which is seen as debatable because of a confused understanding of the nature of thought and the narrative structure in a creative work.
This study evaluates the concept of power in women’s conversation. It also investigates how power is practised among Iranian women’s speech through interruptions. A group of educated upper middle class Iranian women was chosen due to their ability to communicate effectively in English. The group’s speech was audio recorded and then transcribed using a modified version of Gail Jefferson’s (1978) transcription convention. The conversation recorded was analyzed based on the turns and the interruptions that women made and also the way that they exerted power through their use of interruptions. It also attempts to demonstrate the extent to which Iranian women use power and how they manage their turns in face-to-face interaction. The findings of this study indicate that the participants constantly interrupt each other to voice their ideas. They have the tendency to vie for the floor and jockey for turns in their quest to dominate the conversation and in turn prove that they are more powerful than the others. This study suggests that the female participants tend to dominate the conversation in order to demonstrate the power and control that they possess over their peers.
Power, Women’s Conversation, professional women, interruptions, Iranian society
There is a body of received theories which suggest that tax policy changes actually influence the value of corporations, and affect capital market values. There is strong evidence of share price being changed whenever good or bad news from tax changes occur. This paper provides a very short review of well-known theories, with the aim of showing how tax changes relating to dividends in Malaysia and in the USA do actually affect the values of shares in one mid-income and one high-income economy. Malaysia’s policy change in 2007 to streamline the dividend credit system into a single-tier tax system led to share price increases in Bursa Malaysia. Tax effect in the USA was tested using the good news of dividend tax cuts passed into law on three dates over 2003 and 2010. These findings are very much policy relevant for the ongoing debate, for example, in Malaysia on introducing future goods and sales tax to reduce other taxes.
Taxation theories, share prices, disclosure effect, tax policy effect, Bursa Malaysia, goods and sales tax
Tertiary ESL students find writing the academic term-paper a complex process as they grapple with issues about academic writing conventions and ethics. This paper examines tertiary students’ thoughts and perceptions in co-constructing knowledge about academic writing and how multi-drafting and feedback strategies enhance their academic literacy skills through term-paper writing. In particular, we examine the use of the term-paper as a pedagogical instrument incorporating the process approach to writing for developing academic writing skills among tertiary level students in Malaysia including the importance of multi-drafting, where students reflect on the writing of the multi-drafts and evaluate their learning while working in groups. The respondents are 38 Diploma in Business Management students from a Malaysian university enrolled in an academic writing course. Focus group interviews, group observations and respondents reflective journal entries provided the qualitative data. Our findings show that group multi-drafting and feedback processes enhanced students understanding of writing as a recursive process and sharpened their academic writing literacy knowledge in the areas of referencing, planning, idea generation, editing and revising. We conclude that the multi-draft term-paper approach as a pedagogical tool seems to be a feasible solution to heightening the academic writing skills and confidence of tertiary students.
Term-paper, multi-drafting, feedback, reflection, recursive process
The recent global changes and lack of sustainable development have thrown open many challenges as well as opportunities. The material and economic development processes of last two centuries have increased social inequalities among nations and communities and led to unsustainable activities that are associated environment damages, global warming, climate changes and threats to security on food, health, shelter, water, air and society. These challenges demand a change in the way we think and act. The issues like renewable energy sources, conservation of resources (including water, adoption of technologies which are clean and have lower carbon foot-prints) are coming to the forefront. So are the issues of social behaviour and value system. The current way of evaluating success based on economic parameters and balance sheets needs to be changed to capture parameters like social inequalities, changing value system, increased corporate social responsibilities, lower green house gas emissions and improved ecological impacts. The teaching process has to stress on the changing scenario and to meet the challenges of quality of living, social justice, equality, sustainability, in addition to techno economic feasibility. Agriculture, Agro forestry, energy, food, communications and industry sectors need changes in the way things are being currently practiced. The needs include greater stakeholders’ participation, responsive industry, private-public partnership and voluntary disclosure. The new generations of students need inputs on sustainable operations, resource conservation, renewable energy resources, clean technologies, new value system, climate changes, as well as environment protection and carbon foot-print and societal issues. Education looks at the new concepts of environmental, societal sustainable feasibility to ensure a sustainable development and improved standard of living. Meanwhile, the approach to investment decision making on developmental issues has to change. This includes Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) teaching in engineering education which needs a fresh look to provide holistic inputs. Thus, HSS has to play a key role in engineering education quite differently from the way it is being managed today.
Engineering education, environment, sustainability, competitiveness, social inequity, humanities and social sciences
Larsen and Toubro (L&T) Limited is India’s largest construction conglomerate. L&T’s expertise is harnessed to execute high value projects that demand adherence to stringent timelines in a scenario where disparate disciplines of engineering are required to be coordinated on a critical path. However, no company can acquire such a feat without systematic management of its human resource. An investigation on the human resource management practices in orienting L&T’s success can help to identify some of the ethical human resource practices, especially in the context of Indian market. Accordingly, a well-designed employee satisfaction survey was conducted for assessment of the HRM practices being followed in L&T. Unlike other companies, L&T aims to meet the long-term needs of its employees rather than short-term needs. There were however few areas of concerns, such as yearly appraisal system and equality to treat the employees. It is postulated that the inequality to treat the male and female employees is primarily a typical stereotype due to the fact that construction is conventionally believed to be a male dominant activity. A periodic survey intended to provide 360° feedback system can help to avoid such irregularities. This study is thus expected to provide healthy practices of HRM to nurture the young talents of India. This may help them to evaluate their decisions by analyzing the complex relationship between HRM practices and output of an organization.
Human resource management, India, Larsen and Toubro Limited
Engineering, particularly in India, is a very technical form of education, with very little emphasis on social science and liberal arts related subjects. It produces a large number of quality engineers from different institutions every year, who are highly capable of solving engineering problems in their chosen fields, but quite often find its difficult to effectively participate in the developmental activities in the country as they are unable to comprehend correctly the societal needs. The present society and the education system do not provide enough opportunities to explore nature and the society at large and thus quite often, the experts in various engineering fields become isolated and are unable to understand the real needs of the people. One option to bridge the gap is to introduce a few humanities, social sciences and ethics related courses in the engineering curricula. The paper discusses various possible methods to implement such a plan, evaluates them and concludes that at this point of time, the most appropriate solution would be to make these topics in-built into the engineering subjects. However, in order to implement this, the engineering professionals must get convinced about the need and the initiative should come from them.
Education, Social Sciences, Humanities, Engineering
The Twenty-first Century is often hailed as the Pacific Century. In economic and trade terms, it is already evident with the rise of China and India as major players. Conflicts are inevitable in commonplace human interactions. The crucial question as we move towards an age of globalisation is to ask ourselves if we are competently prepared to manage cross-cultural conflicts given the diversity of habits that occupy our respective words, thoughts and deeds in multicultural environments. This paper seeks to examine the major cultural paradigms that underpin East-West behaviours in the context of conflicts. It will demonstrate, for example, how the primarily collectivist East will perceive and manage conflicts vastly different to Western individualistic ways. It will then conclude that cross-cultural conflict management skill is an essential acquisition to meet contemporary challenges.
Process drama involves participants using improvisation techniques in role-play to enact real-life scenarios. It focuses on the process rather than the final product and therefore allows students and teachers to simulate actual situations experientially and, in the process, develop problem-solving skills. It has been used as learning and teaching strategy in various disciplines in the arts and the sciences. Students enjoy situated learning through contextualisation of concepts within their fields, acting out scenes that deal with issues pertaining to their fields of study. Process drama is, in essence, learning by doing while at the same time creating a real-life environment in the classroom that makes the educational process organic. It is a useful tool with which to help develop the social interactional skills of people of the sciences.
Process drama, role-play, situated learning, sciences, social interaction
The Information and Communication Technology has deepened its roots into our lifestyles and become an indispensable power churning machismo, giving one the freedom to do whatever one wills to, at the click of a button. However, most of this freedom leads one to dilemmas, where he/she may find a thin difference between right and wrong. The purpose of this study was to explore and understand the present day youth’s inclination towards unethical practices in the ICT Industry. In more specific, their inclination to adopt malpractices, such as plagiarism, digital piracy and social network abuse, have been empirically explored. Based on the survey of 123 undergraduate students, independent sample t-test and simple regression analysis were employed to analyze the empirical data. The findings suggest that these easily available user friendly technologies, which the present day youth is deeply familiar with, also lead to misuse or unethical practices. Demographic variables like gender and education and psychological variables like self-concept clarity too seem to impact their ethical/unethical behaviour. It was expected that the findings would contribute meaningfully towards framing guidelines and practices for developing a better ethical environment and character in youth.
Digital piracy, ethics, plagiarism, self concept clarity, social networking ethics
The police fulfil an essential role in the society and since their job is demanding, it is also stressful. Constant and unmanaged stress potentially reduces the effectiveness and efficiency of the personnel. The stressed police officers pose a threat to themselves, their colleagues, offenders and/or to public safety and thus it is a matter of urgent concern for psychologists in particular and mental health researchers in general. There are endeavours to reduce, eliminate or modify stress and anger among police personnel using psychological techniques based on the western model. The present study is unique as it uses stress and anger management techniques based on Indian psychological models. The multidimensional psychological interventions used in this study were chosen on the basis of indigenous psychological viewpoints embedded in Yoga and meditational techniques. The volunteers were chosen from different ranks of police personnel, namely constables, head constables, as well as assistant sub-inspectors and inspectors, who were divided into different groups. However, only the control group was exposed to physical relaxation technique to reduce their stress level and anger. In order to assess the efficacy of these multidimensional psychological interventions, scores on stress and anger were taken prior to and after the intervention (pre-test and post-test design). A repeated measure analysis of variance was applied to compare the experimental and control groups. It was found that the multidimensional psychological interventions were significant in reducing job stress, anger-in, anger-out as they enhanced the anger-control of subjects. The study highlighted the role of stress and anger management techniques developed from Indian psychology theory.
Stress and anger management, police personnel, and Indian psychological techniques
Financial education can be defined as “the process by which financial consumers/investors improve their understanding of financial products and concepts, develop the skills and confidence to become aware of financial risks and opportunities, make informed choices, and take other effective actions to improve their financial well-being and protection”. Financial stability is achieved through the application of sensible financial principles and responsible behaviour, which itself can be inculcated through financial education at school and college levels. However, it has been observed that students seeking technical education are not given adequate financial education and knowledge as it should have been to enable them make informed decisions. An attempt has been made in this paper to gather information and evaluate the effectiveness of the subjects pertaining to Finance and Economics being offered to Engineering students in various institutions, and to also seek from students what additional financial education they feel is missing from their curriculum. Furthermore, various measures are suggested to improve financial awareness and to help the students gain a more in-depth knowledge about financial management principles and concepts related to personal finance for a holistic development of future technocrats.