This study examined the intensity of work-family conflict experienced by married working women, the gender role orientation of their husbands, and the relationship between husbands’ gender role orientation and wives’ work-family conflict. Responses from 125 pairs of nurses and their husbands in dual-earner families on measures of work-family conflict and gender role orientations were obtained through self-administered questionnaires and analysed. Results indicated that nurses experienced varying intensities of conflict in trying to meet the demands of work and family roles. Almost a third of the nurses experienced high intensity of conflict while slightly more than a third experienced low intensity of conflict. Husbands’ gender role orientation ranged from traditional to egalitarian with about a quarter of them holding traditional gender role orientation and slightly more than a quarter holding egalitarian orientation. Among the three dimensions of orientation studied, namely, attitude towards gender-based employment, attitude towards gender division of labour and attitude towards gender-based power structure, husbands’ orientation was traditional toward power structure or toward women occupying leadership positions. Their orientation toward gender division of labour was neither egalitarian nor traditional while their orientation toward gender-based employment was more egalitarian. Significant negative relationship was found between husbands’ gender role orientation and wives’ work-family conflict..
Gender role orientation, gender role attitude, work-family conflict, working women, working husbands, dual-earner families
The present study determined the relationships among parenting knowledge, quality of stimulation in the home, and children’s academic performance. Subjects were 60 Malay mothers with children aged 8 to 9 years, who were identified using stratified random selection. Data were collected by interview and observation in the home of the respondents. Parenting knowledge was measured using an instrument that was specially developed by the researcher. The quality of stimulation in the home was assessed using Caldwell and Bradley’s (1984) HOME inventory. Information on the children’s academic achievement was obtained from their school report cards. Results show significant associations among the variables of interest. Parenting knowledge was significantly related to the quality of stimulation in the home, which in turn, was significantly related to the academic performance of the children. Additional analyses show significant associations between family background factors (education, family income, and number of children) and parenting knowledge, and quality of stimulation in the home environment. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Parenting, child development knowledge, home environment, academic performance, children, family background
Instructors’ ability and skills in creating valid and credible tests are the prime concerns that prompted this study. The focus of the study was to investigate prevalent testing practices among lecturers in higher learning institutions. Specifically it examined the procedures followed by university instructors in the constructions of valid and reliable tests. The study sampled 105 respondents systematically selected from a pool of university instructors. To obrain responses from the respondents regarding their testing practices, a checklist containing relevant items on the creation of final examination questions and their marking schemes was constructed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regressions. It was discovered that a majority of the respondents had applied proper procedures in creating valid and reliable tests, especially with respect to marking examination scripts. It appeared that instructors from the faculties of education, psychology and human sciences demonstrated adherence to these standards and proper procedures more significantly than those from other faculties. From the findings, the study synthesized implications on educational practices, in particular the certification of testing competency among instructors of higher learning institutions.
Penyelidikan dalam bidang penulisan karangan telah memperlihatkan perubahan dari segi fokusnya, iaitu daripada penyelidikan yang berpusatkan hasil karangan kepada yang berpusatkan proses menulis karangan. Makalah ini membentangkan satu kajian tentang proses mengarang yang dilalui oleh pelajar pada peringkat pramenulis semasa menghadapi tugasan penulisan karangan di kelas. Secara khususnya, kajian ini meneliti bentuk perlakuan dan proses pramenuliskarangan yang ditunjukkan oleh pelajar tingkatan empat semasa menulis dalam konteks kelas yang sebenar. Pengutipan dan pengumpulan data dijalankan dengan menggunakan kaedah pemerhatian, temu bual dan bukti dokumen di sebuah sekolah selama satu tahun. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa bentuk perlakuan dan proses pramenulis karangan para pelajar dipengaruhi oleh konteks pengajaran dan pembelajaran serta guru yang mengajar. Susulan kepada penemuan tersebut, beberapa cadangan tentang bentuk kegiatan pengajaran dan pembelajaran pramenulis karangan dibincangkan.
Perlakuan mengarang, proses mengarang, pengajaran kemahiran menulis, pramenulis Karangan, dan pramenulis
The general purpose of this study was to determine the influences on the effectiveness of the National Population and Family Development Board’s (NPFDB) parenting module among parents by examining the effects of individual differences (expressed readiness for parenting change and perceptions of parenting self-efficacy) and exposure to the module on parenting knowledge, attitudes, practices, and skills (KAPS) and perceptions of the module. The Pre-test-Post-test Control Group Design was used for evaluating the parenting module. A total of 80 respondents were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Results of the study showed that parenting KAPS improved significantly for the experimental group after exposure to the module. Generally, it was found that the participants had high perceptions of the module structure and its usefulness. Results also showed that individual differences was significantly related to parenting knowledge (r=0.56, p<0.05) and parenting attitudes (r= 0.46, p<0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between individual differences and parenting practices and skills. Results obtained suggested that exposure to the module was significantly and positively correlated with parenting knowledge (r=0.57, p<0.05), parenting attitudes (r=0.56,p<0.05), parenting practices (r=0.34, p<0.05) and parenting skills (r=0.26, p<0.05). The participants’ exposure to the parenting module and individual differences were found to have direct effect on their parenting KAP. The study however, found no evidence to conclude that exposure to the module and individual differences had an effect on the parenting skills of the participants. Nevertheless, on the whole the study concluded that the parenting module was effective in changing the parenting KAPS of parents.
Kajian ini dijalankan untuk menentukan sama ada wujud hubungan antara aspek kepuasan kerja seperti suasana bekerja, peluang kenaikan pangkat, gaji, penyeliaan, dan teman sekerja dengan kepuasan kerja di kalangan Pegawai Tadbir UPM. Subjek kajian terdiri daripada 55 Pegawai Tadbir yang bertugas di UPM sehingga Januari 1998 menggunakan pensampelan rawak mudah. Alat kajian yang digunakan ialah Job Descriptive Index (JDI) yang telah diterjemahkan ke dalam Bahasa Melayu oleh Arifin Haji Zainal (1980) menggunakan kaedah back translation. Data-data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan statistik deskriptif, regresi mudah dan regresi pelbagai dengan aras keertian ditetapkan pada .05. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan wujudnya hubungan saling pengaruh mempengaruhi antara suasana bekerja, peluang kenaikan pangkat, gaji, penyeliaan dan teman sekerja dengan kepuasan bekerja. Keputusan kajian juga menunjukkan bahawa setiap aspek iaitu suasana bekerja, peluang kenaikan pangkat, gaji, penyeliaan dan teman sekerja mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kepuasan kerja. Sehubungan dengan keputusan kajian yang telah diperolehi, beberapa implikasi dan cadangan telah dikemukakan.