Environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Malaysia can influence public policymaking through several political tactics. This study surveyed and compared the tactics used by three selected NGOs, namely, the Sahabat Alam Malaysia (SAM), the Malaysian Nature Society (MNS) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Malaysia. The Automobile Association of Malaysia (AAM) was conveniently selected as the control group. Data and information were gathered through face-to-face interview technique with the chief executive officers of the respective organizations or their representative using a structured questionnaire. The findings reveal that the environmental NGOs are different from the AAM in their choice of tactics of influencing public policy. The former prefer to use direct tactics in influencing policy decisions. Tactics such as conducting and presenting research results, presenting personal viewpoints, lobbying and contacting officials, are often used compared to tactics like letter-writing and telegram campaigns, grassroots lobbying, drafting legislation or organizing conferences. Among the NGOs, the MNS has been the most tactical in the sense that it has used more tactics, both direct and indirect, more often than the SAM or the WWF. The MNS is also the most resourceful of the NGOs and this probably explains its capacity to employ more political tactics. Future studies should use a bigger sample as well as investigate the effectiveness of the various tactics used.
Environmental NGOs, political tactics, public policy
Kajian mengenai produktiviti terus menarik minat para penyelidik memandangkan kepentingan sumbangan produktiviti ke atas pertumbuhan ekonomi. Kajian mengenainya bukan sahaja menekankan kepada teknik-teknik pengukuran tetapi juga menumpukan kepada komposisi produktiviti. Pemahaman mengenai komponen-komponen yang terkandung dalam produktiviti dapat membantu penggubal dasar mengenal pasti punca ketidakcekapan sesebuah industri. Melalui penggunaan indeks Malmquist dan pendekatan DEA, kajian ini bertujuan mengukur produktiviti bagi sektor elekrikal dan elektronik (E&E). Melalui keadah ini, produktiviti dapat dipecahkan kepada dua komponen iaitu perubahan teknikal dan perubahan kecekapan. Produktiviti bagi sektor E&E telah mengalami pertumbuhan yang menggalakkan melalui sumbangan peningkatan dalam kecekapan dan perubahan teknikal.
Produktiviti, pertubuhan ekonomi, teknik-teknik dan komposisi produktiviti, indeks malmquist, DEA
A study was conducted in one of the states of Peninsular Malaysia to observe the trends and identify factors associated with the occurrence of forest offenses during the period from 1981 to1992. Data and information on forest offenses, price of logs, size of forest areas, and number of enforcement officers were collected from various sources including the records and annual reports of the State Forestry Department, and MASKAYU bulletin published by the Malaysian Timber Industry Board. Correlation and regression analyses were carried out to determine the relationships between forest offenses and price of logs, size of forest area and number of enforcement officers. The number of forest offenses in the state shows a decreasing trend. Illegal logging which is a form of forest offense constitutes the highest percentage in all the years during the study period. Of the three factors investigated, only the price of logs correlated significantly with forest offenses. The price of logs is inversely correlated with forest offenses. The regression models developed show the relationships between the number of offenses and the price of logs as follows:For number of forest offenses p = 0.02 andFor number of illegal logging cases p = 0.03Further studies should be conducted to better understand other factors like penalties that influence forest offenses.
Forest law enforcement, forest offenses, illegal logging, economics of crime
Tanah Rizab Melayu (TRM) meliputi 33.55% tanah di Malaysia yang boleh diusahakan secara produktif. Malangnya banyak kajian yang telah dibuat menunjukkan sumber pengeluaran yang sebegini besar tidak berjaya digembleng oleh pemilik untuk mencapai potensi ekonominya yang sebenar. Penyelesaian kepada masalah ketidakcekapan penggunaan sumber ini memerlukan teori yang boleh menerangkan mengapa keadaan ini wujud. Walaupun ada beberapa idea yang telah dilontarkan untuk menjelaskan fenomena ini, idea-idea tersebut tidak berdasarkan teori ekonomi yang tegar. Kertas ini mengusulkan satu teori ekonomi yang mudah tetapi tegar, untuk menerangkan (dari segi ekonomi) mengapa pemilik-pemilik TRM membuat pelaburan yang lebih rendah dari tahap yang cekap, sekali gus menerangkan mengapa TRM kurang dibangunkan potensi ekonominya. Kertas ini menyarankan bahawa kos transaksi dan oportunisme akibat dari pemilikan bertindih boleh mengakibatkan kurang berlakunya pembangunan TRM.
Tanah Rizab Melayu, oportunisme, pelaburan optimal, kos transaksi
Estimating technical efficiency of production technology is important for policy purposes. Four production frontiers consisting of parametric and nonparametric functions were analysed to estimate technical efficiency ratios on a sample of pepper farms in Sarawak. The methodologies employed produced different estimates, distributions, and rankings of efficiency ratios. The nonparametric estimates were greater than parametric estimates except under stochastic parametric method. Due to the large differences in technical efficiency results, recommendation for policy purpose should not be made without prior detailed analysis of each method.
This paper addresses the issue of changes in consumers’ tastes in the demand for fish and meat products in Malaysia. Both, habit persistent effect and structural change in consumers’ preferences towards fish and its substitutes are empirically examined using data from 1960 to 1990 with an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) approach. In the dynamic AIDS model, it was found that there was a pervasiveness of habit formation in the demand for fish, chicken and pork but the amount of beef and mutton purchased during the last period tends to lower current budget allocation on these meat products. The structural change in consumers’ preferences were tested using CUSUMSQ procedure and it was found that there was no structural break in the fish equation. This indicates that consumers’ tastes do not change with respect to fish, consistent with a priori expectation, but the more health-conscious population are changing their preferences away from the red meats and currently demanding a bigger amount of white meat, which includesfish.