Universiti Putra Malaysia
Download Archive's Complete Journal - JTAS Vol. 34 (2) Aug. 2011
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1
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(Downloads: 22)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a hardy, most cultured freshwater fish in the world. It has been contributing to the world aquaculture since the ancient Egyptian days and remains a major freshwater fish species to be cultured. Although tilapias are more resistant to unfavourable water quality than other freshwater fish, tilapias have been reported to succumb to infection by Streptococcus, which was first observed among the populations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farmed in the Shizouka Prefecture in Japan in April 1957. Since then, the disease that is also known as ‘pop eye’ has been reported in many other fish species throughout the world, contributing to an annual loss of approximately USD 150 million. Affected tilapia shows loss of appetite, spine displacement, haemorrhages in the eye, corneal opacity, haemorrhages at the base of the fins and in the opercula. The most prominent signs are uni- or bi-lateral exophthalmia (also known as “pop-eye”), distended abdomen and erratic swimming. Control is mainly through implementing some preventive measure and antibiotic therapy, while vaccination is generally not effective in preventing Streptococcus outbreaks in tilapias.Streptococcus, tilapia, infection
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(Downloads: 14)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)Deficit irrigation in the Gavkhuni River Basin (GRB), Iran, is an effective method for alleviation of drought impacts on crop yields. Whilst it saves considerable amounts of water, it has little effect on crop yields. The effects of deficit irrigation on grain yield and yield components of maize were studied using two factors [namely, the variety at two levels (704 maize variety with 9354 kg ha-1 yield, and 647 maize variety with 8822 kg ha-1 yield) and irrigation at four levels (control, 100, 80, and 60% of water level use)] for three consecutive years. Significant differences (P≤0.05) were noticeable in grain yield, as well as depth and column of kernel among the irrigation treatments. In addition, the effects of cultivars on grain yield, 1000 kernel weight, number of kernel per ear row, number of kernel per column, and depth of kernels were insignificant. Nevertheless, the effects of irrigation treatments on 1000 kernel weight and number of kernel per ear row were not significant. Based on the results and considering the quantitative characteristics of the crop, it was established that for the deficit irrigating of maize, the 80% irrigation level (i.e. 80% of crop evapotranspiration) is the most advantageous treatment when water is not limited. However, when higher water productivity and the possibility of using the water saved are taken into consideration during severe drought conditions, 60% irrigation level treatment is recommended.Deficit irrigation, maize, yield components, water productivity
3
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(Downloads: 11)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)The present study was undertaken to determine the fertility soundness of unselected bulls used for breeding based on a standard breeding soundness evaluation technique (BSE) and trans-scrotal ultrasonography (TSU). A total of 8 bulls, with the mean age of 5½ years (ranged from 3½ - 8 years) and the mean weight of 651.5kg (ranged from 480-840 kg) were evaluated. Three bulls were Friesian Sahiwal, 2 Brangus and the rest were Brahman-KK (Kedah Kelantan) cross, Simmental-KK cross and KK breed (one from each). Out of the total bulls examined, 3 (37.5%) were found to be unfit to be used for breeding due to their physical unsoundness and/or poor semen quality. The use of TSU has revealed the presence of testicular lesions in 3 bulls. The finding of TSU (suggestive of testicular degeneration) in one bull was reflected by a poor semen quality of the BSE results. Despite the presence of lesions of idiopathic unilateral hydrocele and bilateral fibrotic foci lesion in the other two bulls, the BSE findings for semen quality were not compromised. In conclusion, there was enough evidence to support our hypothesis that the observed drop in the reproductive performance of the herd was partly the result of using bulls with poor breeding soundness for fertility.Breeding soundness evaluation, bulls, poor reproductive performance, trans-scrotal ultrasonography
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(Downloads: 9)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)The distribution of macrobenthic invertebrates at Semenyih River has been described by Yap et al. (2003a), but their relationships with physico-chemical characteristics of the river have yet to be established. By using correlation and multiple linear stepwise regression, it was found that BOD3, orthophosphate, total suspended solids and turbidity were important in structuring the stream macrobenthic invertebrate communities because they determined whether organisms could colonize and persist in the stream habitats. Thus, the invertebrates are useful as bioindicators to the health of the river ecosystem, complementing water quality analysis. Impacts of anthropogenic inputs can therefore be assessed based on the macrobenthic invertebrates’ different species distribution.Semenyih River, macrobenthic invertebrates, correlation analysis, multiple stepwise regression analysis
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Abstract (Viewed: 2)This study was undertaken with the aim to determine the carcass composition of three breeds of chicken and their correlation with growth performance. For this purpose, fifty Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus Spadiceus), fifty Malaysian indigenous chickens (Gallus gallus Domesticus) and fifty broiler chickens (ROSS) were used in this study. The chickens in each group were sacrificed at 1, 10, 20, 56, and 120 days post-hatching. The results showed that there were significant differences in the parameters measured between the high performance breed (commercial broilers), and the lower performance breeds (Red Jungle Fowl and Malaysian Indigenous chickens), although they were reared under the same environment and received the same feed, management and other facilities. Meanwhile, relative whole carcass weight, bone and fat weights in the commercial broiler were the highest compared to indigenous chickens and red jungle fowl at (p<0.05). Red Jungle Fowl, Malaysian indigenous chicken, commercial broiler, carcass composition
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(Downloads: 22)
Abstract (Viewed: 7)The present investigation was carried out to determine the phylogenetic relationships among different breeds of domestic chickens in selected areas of Peninsular Malaysia. Four RAPD primers were used to characterise the genetic similarity among twenty-seven chicken samples from Peninsular Malaysia. Phylogenetic analysis, using neighbour-joining (NJ), generally produced six clusters which were completely distinguished based on the locality of the chickens. A comparatively high level of genetic variation was observed among the village chickens from different locations. A high level of genetic variation was also observed between commercial broiler chicken from selected localities in Peninsular Malaysia and between the commercial broiler and layer chicken in Peninsular Malaysia. Hence, the results indicated the effectiveness of RAPD to detect similarity between chicken lines and their applicability in establishing genetic relationships among chicken populations. Keywords: Phylogenetic, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), chickens
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(Downloads: 10)
Abstract (Viewed: 2)Three experiments were carried out to improve semen quality during cryopreservation process. Total motility, forward motility, acrosome integrity, live spermatozoa, and normal spermatozoa were measured as semen quality. In Experiment 1, the effects of seminal plasma removal were analyzed by using two different extenders (GE and FE). The removal of seminal plasma gave higher and significant (P<0.05) effect in the total motility, forward motility, and live spermatozoa after cryopreservation. For two different extenders, however, the differences were not observed on the semen quality. In Experiment 2, three different washing solutions (namely, phosphate buffered saline, normal saline and Tris-based extender) were tested to evaluate the effects of semen quality after cryopreservation. Tris-based extender (TCG) conferred the highest (P<0.05) sperm quality values in the total motility, forward motility, and live spermatozoa after cryopreservation. In Experiment 3, the effects of different centrifugation regimes (3000 × g for 3 min, 1600 × g for 10 min, 800 × g for 15 min) were evaluated on Boer semen quality. Semen quality parameters (namely, total motility, forward motility, acrosome integrity, and live spermatozoa) were significantly (P<0.05) higher for cryopreserved spermatozoa centrifuged with 3000 × g for 3 min than the others. In conclusion, the removal of seminal plasma, washing solution TCG, and the use short-term centrifugation with a relative high g-force could contribute to the increased Boer semen quality after cryopreservation.Boer goat, centrifugation, cryopreservation, seminal plasma, washing solution
8
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(Downloads: 9)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)Three experiments were carried out to improve semen quality during cryopreservation process. Total motility, forward motility, acrosome integrity, live spermatozoa, and normal spermatozoa were measured as semen quality. In Experiment 1, the effects of seminal plasma removal were analyzed by using two different extenders (GE and FE). The removal of seminal plasma gave higher and significant (P<0.05) effect in the total motility, forward motility, and live spermatozoa after cryopreservation. For two different extenders, however, the differences were not observed on the semen quality. In Experiment 2, three different washing solutions (namely, phosphate buffered saline, normal saline and Tris-based extender) were tested to evaluate the effects of semen quality after cryopreservation. Tris-based extender (TCG) conferred the highest (P<0.05) sperm quality values in the total motility, forward motility, and live spermatozoa after cryopreservation. In Experiment 3, the effects of different centrifugation regimes (3000 × g for 3 min, 1600 × g for 10 min, 800 × g for 15 min) were evaluated on Boer semen quality. Semen quality parameters (namely, total motility, forward motility, acrosome integrity, and live spermatozoa) were significantly (P<0.05) higher for cryopreserved spermatozoa centrifuged with 3000 × g for 3 min than the others. In conclusion, the removal of seminal plasma, washing solution TCG, and the use short-term centrifugation with a relative high g-force could contribute to the increased Boer semen quality after cryopreservation. Boer goat, centrifugation, cryopreservation, seminal plasma, washing solution
9
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(Downloads: 10)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)The phylogenetic relationships among 10 species of Rhinolophus and 10 species of Hipposideros from Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia were successfully inferred from the partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome (cyt) b sequences. Of the 413 nucleotide positions examined, there were 171 positions (41.4%), of which 164 positions (95.9%) were parsimoniously informative. The phylogenetic trees reconstruction using neighbour-joining (NJ), unweighted maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods suggest the monophyletic clustering of these families. The interspecific relationships within Rhinolophidae were completely resolved, while those within Hipposideridae were not fully resolved, as supported by the low bootstrap values. Overall, the phylogenetic analysis using partial mtDNA cyt b gene was useful to discriminate these complicated taxa and successfully revealed the misidentification of several specimens before due to their similar morphologies.Cytochrome b, Hipposideros, mitochondrial DNA, phylogenetics, Rhinolophus
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(Downloads: 8)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)The study was conducted to investigate the effects selected management practices have on worm burden in goats as reflected by faecal egg counts. The faecal examination of six goat farms for the quantitative presence of strongyles was conducted in Terengganu. A questionnaire was developed and directed to six farmers on the management practices adopted on their farms. The management practices selected in the study were grazing time, mineral block supplementation, type of drug used, breed, and source of animal, grass type, additional feed, and drenching personnel. The data analysis was done through systematic approaches using t-test, Spearman correlation and ANOVA. Afternoon grazing reduced the mean FEC nearly five-fold compared to morning grazing and mineral block supplementation reduced FEC two-fold compared to unsupplemented goats (P<0.05).Management practices, goats, helminthiasis
11
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(Downloads: 9)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)A cross sectional study to determine the occurrence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella spp. in finishing pigs was carried out at 12 selected pig farms. The farm characteristics and certain management practices associated with the occurrence of Salmonella spp. were also evaluated. Rectal swabs were collected aseptically from 210 randomly selected finishing pigs. Suspect Salmonella colonies isolated were identified using a set of conventional biochemical tests and these isolates were sent to the Veterinary Research Institute (VRI) for serotyping. The antimicrobial sensitivity test was conducted on the isolates against a panel of selected antimicrobials that are commonly used in local pig production using disc diffusion method. In addition, a questionnaire on the management of farms, herd health programme, and common antimicrobial usage was collected from farm representative, resulting in variables that could be analyzed to identify factors associated with the occurrence of Salmonella. The results showed that 32 out of 210 finishing pigs (15.2%) tested were positive for Salmonella typhimurium and the isolates were detected from 9 out of 12 farms sampled (75.0%). Most of the isolates showed a relatively high level of antimicrobial resistance. The occurrence of Salmonella in pigs were significantly associated with (1) farms which were not equipped with footbath or vehicle wheels dip; (2) farms with vermins/birds in the surrounding; (3) farms with less frequent pen cleaning and (4) farms which are located adjacent to the neighbouring farms. Salmonella, finishing pigs, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance pattern, risk factors
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(Downloads: 12)
Abstract (Viewed: 2)The Giant Grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), Mouse Grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) and the Brown Marbled Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) are all found in the coastal waters of Sabah, Malaysia; they are listed as vulnerable, threatened and near-threatened, respectively, according to the IUCN Red Data list. Based on microsatellite loci, molecular markers can be applied as versatile tools for forensic detection, population genetic studies and the development of genomic databases which can subsequently be incorporated into viable conservation programmes. This paper describes the development of molecular markers for the three species of grouper. DNA was extracted from adult specimens of the three species, which are currently maintained at the Borneo Marine Research Institute Aquaculture facility, subject to DNA amplification using a multiplex PCR enrichment procedure, and the PCR products were ligated onto a pJET 1.2 blunt cloning vector. This was followed by sequencing and the development of 24 specific molecular markers for each of the three species. These markers have a potential application for the identification and forensic detection of these species in transit and can be adopted within the context of a strategy for the conservation and management of Malaysian fisheries resources.Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Epinephelus lancelolatus, Cromileptes altivelis, molecular markers
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(Downloads: 9)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)Cellulose synthase (CesA) is a key enzyme involved in the regulation of cellulose biosynthesis pathway. It is heritable and important in determining the variability of wood. In particular, it provides greater impact on the design of future genetic improvement strategies in the production of high quality wood. Thus, the molecular diversity of partial SpCesA1 genomic DNAs (802 bp) generated through PCR amplification was examined in this study, and this followed by sequencing from five selected Shorea parvifolia ssp. parvifolia mother trees. The consensus sequences were aligned to detect the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, seven SNPs were detected at nucleotide 58, 66, 69, 194, 224, 376 and 448. Interestingly, one single base pair InDel polymorphism was also detected at nucleotide 67. On average, one SNP at every 109 bp of the sequence data was detected. However, this result was obtained from a study of partial SpCesA1 genomic DNA of 802 bp. Two possible restriction enzymes were detected on two SNP sites of partial SpCesA1 genomic DNA. These included EarI (5`-GAAGAG-3`) and EcoRI (5`-GAATTC-3`), which were recognized and later cut at nucleotides 48 and 370, respectively. The exclusiveness of the restriction enzymes EarI and EcoRI obtained for SNPs at nucleotides 58 and 376, respectively, could be useful for the development of cleaved-amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers which could also be used to understand the molecular diversity of the CesA genes in tropical tree genomes.Cellulose synthase, wood formation, Shorea parvifolia ssp. parvifolia, PCR, single nucleotide polymorphisms, molecular marker
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Abstract (Viewed: 4)Fusarium species associated with corn (Zea mays) are very diverse and widely distributed throughout Malaysia. Out of 657 samples cultured, a total of 220 Fusarium isolates were obtained from corn plants showing the typical symptoms of Fusarium ear rot in 12 locations throughout Malaysia. All the isolates were identified into 10 species based on the morphological characteristics that emphasized on growth rates, colony features and microscopic characteristics. A total of 117 Fusarium isolates were classified into four species in the section Liseola and their allied, tentatively identified as F. proliferatum (58), F. subglutinans (34), F. verticillioides (24), and F. nygamai (1). Meanwhile, F. proliferatum was the most prevalent species in all the sampling areas. 103 isolates, which were classified into six other Fusarium species belonging to different sections, were also isolated and identified, and these included F. semitectum (47), F. oxysporum (20), F. pseudograminearum (19), F. solani (15), F. equiseti (1), and F. longipes (1). F. semitectum was the highest among other common saprophytic fungi in corn. F. pseudograminearum was only isolated from the samples obtained from Cameron Highlands, Pahang. In term of species diversity, Fusarium species was the highest obtained in Semenyih, Selangor, with H`=1.72.Keywords: Fusarium species, Fusarium ear rot, diversity, corn, morphology
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Abstract (Viewed: 2)Green leafy vegetables constitute a major part of balanced diet and are good sources of minerals and vitamins. These beneficial effects are attributed to the presence of antioxidants. Antioxidants also contribute to the defence mechanisms against oxidative stress. Centella asiatica, which is locally known as ‘pegaga,’ is claimed to be rich in natural antioxidative compounds. This study was conducted to determine the amount of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and carotenoid content in twelve accessions of C. asiatica (CA01 to CA12-comprises of ‘pegaga nyonya’, ‘pegaga kampung’ and ‘pegaga salad’) leaf tissues and callus cultures. The antioxidative constituents of C. asiatica in the leaf tissues and cultures were found to vary significantly between the accessions. In particular, CA03 leaves (‘pegaga salad’) exhibited the highest concentrations of ascorbic acid (95.86 ± 12.60 µg/g.fwt), whereas CA10 (‘pegaga nyonya’) produced the highest concentration of α-tocopherol (0.233 ± 0.029 µg/g.fwt) and carotenoids (36.55 ± 0.06 µg/g.fwt). The antioxidants studied were also successfully detected in the cultures of C. asiatica, with CA08 callus (‘pegaga kampung’) being dominant in ascorbic acid (167.21 ± 5.30 µg/g.fwt) and a-tocopherol (5.72 ± 0.29 µg/g.fwt), whereas CA12 callus (‘pegaga kampung’) had the highest carotenoid content (1.04 ± 0.07 µg/g.fwt). Meanwhile, the amount of non-enzymatic antioxidants (except for carotenoid content) was significantly higher in the cell cultures compared to the leaf tissues. The results indicated that CA03 and CA10 leaf tissues, as well as CA08 and CA12 calli were good sources of natural antioxidants compared to other accessions.Centella asiatica, leaf tissues, callus cultures, antioxidants, oxidative stress
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Abstract (Viewed: 2)A subchronic oral toxicity study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Morinda citrifolia in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. For this purpose, the fruit of Morinda citrifolia were oven dried and ground into powder form before incorporating into diet and fed to SD rats (10 males and 10 females per group) at dose levels of 2000 (low dose) and 5000 (high dose) mg/kg body weight/day for 13 weeks. Clinical observations were recorded, while body weight and feed consumption were measured throughout the study. At the end of the study, all the rats were subjected to a full necropsy. Their blood samples were collected for clinical pathology, whereas selected organs were weighed and tissues were preserved from all the animals. Total protein was found to be significantly lower (p<0.05) in male rats of all the treatment groups. Meanwhile, total white blood cells (3.96 ×10³/µl) and spleen weight (0.14%) were found to be significantly lower (p<0.05) in female rats of the low dose group. Nevertheless, the differences observed were within the normal range of normal healthy rats that were considered to be not toxicological significance. It was concluded that the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for Morinda citrifolia was 5000 mg/kg body weight/day.Morinda citrifolia, oven dried, subchronic, rats, clinical pathology
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(Downloads: 7)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)This study described the histopathological features of peripheral T-cell lymphoma in male Sprague Dawley rats following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight per injection, administered twice weekly for 2 consecutive weeks, and followed by a five-month’s observation period. Control rats were injected with normal saline, i.p. All the rats treated with MNU had enlargement of lymph nodes, with 30% had hepatosplenomegaly and 7% had enlarged kidneys at necropsy. Malignant lymphoma was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lung, heart, and kidneys. The neoplastic cells were characterised as undifferentiated, and small to large size with bizarre pleomorphic nuclei. The severity was further described as mild, moderate and severe, based on the diffuseness of the lesions. Nonetheless, similar lesions were not observed in the thymus of the rats. Immunohistochemistry staining of the organs was positive for CD3 antibody, which is consistent with T-cell lymphoma.N-methyl-N-Nitrosourea (MNU), rats, peripheral T-cell lymphoma
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(Downloads: 6)
Abstract (Viewed: 2)This paper describes three cases of urolithiasis in adult Boer bucks. The affected bucks were among the 50 breeders kept under intensive system given cut and carry Napier grass at the rate of 2 kg/animal/day. In addition, the animals were also supplemented with commercial goat pellets at the rate of 300 g/animal/day, 200-300 g of palm kernel expeller (PKE) and mineral block. The affected animals showed clinical signs of stranguria, anorexia, prolonged urination, dribbling urine, tail flagging and abdominal pain. Prior to death, they appeared to be depressed, recumbent, and showed abdominal distension. Supportive treatments in the form of anti-inflammatory drugs and oral drench of ammonium chloride (1%) were attempted. All the animals in this study died within 2 weeks following the onset of depression. Post-mortem examinations revealed swollen testis and severe haemorrhages in the urethra with blackish sandy material deposited within the lumen. There were ascites and swollen kidneys, while cloudy and thick urine filled the bladder. Histological examinations revealed the presence of purplish sandy material, either within the lumen or closely associated with the wall of the urethra. The urethral areas where the calculi were in-contact with the wall showed extensive necrosis with destruction of the epithelial layer and haemorrhages. Urinary calculi have a complex aetiology, but management, nutritional, and anatomical considerations can be helpful.Urolithiasis, Boer bucks
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(Downloads: 9)
Abstract (Viewed: 2)This study was conducted to assess acute exposure to very low dose of intratracheally instilled Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) on the lungs of rats. A total of 30 rats were utilized in this study and they were randomly divided into 6 groups. The control group (G1) did not receive any treatment, whereas the rats in the remaining 5 groups were administered with 13.8 ng of BaP, which were then sacrificed at 1 hour (G2), 8 hours (G3), 16 hours (G4), 32 hours (G5), and 72 hours (G6) of post-instillation (p.i.). Morphological appearances of all the lungs of all the treated rats consisted of various degrees of congestion, mostly evident in G3 and early development of emphysema, as seen in G4. These worsened as time progressed as observed in G6. On the other hand, the histological findings of the lungs of the treated rats revealed that the lungs had underwent some changes that were characterized by progressive alveolar congestion, epithelialisation with emphysema and accompanied by infiltration of inflammatory cells predominantly with alveolar macrophages and some neutrophils. However, even with such lesions seen, there was no apparent manifestation of impairment of the pulmonary system.BaP, histological, intratracheally, lung, morphological
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(Downloads: 8)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)Bcl-2 is an anti-apoptotic gene that is involved in the apoptosis process. Suppression of apoptosis by anti-apoptotic gene can contribute to the occurrence of diseases such as leukaemia. The objectives of this study were 2-folds: first, to compare the sensitivity of an EvaGreen quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with a conventional RT-PCR for the amplification of the Bcl-2 gene; second, to determine the expression of the Bcl-2 gene in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced leukaemia in rats using the EvaGreen qRT-PCR assay. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned into two groups (n=16), namely, control and MNU groups. In particular, MNU was administered intraperitoneally (i.p) at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight per injection at two times per week for 2 consecutive weeks. The rats were sacrificed after five months and blood samples were collected for RNA extraction and haemogram. The RNAs were converted into cDNA and amplified using both the EvaGreen qPCR and the conventional PCR assays. All the results were normalised with a housekeeper gene, i.e. glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH). The products of amplification were run on gel electrophoresis and all the results were then compared. Based on the relative intensity of the bands, the EvaGreen qRT-PCR assay was highly sensitive compared to the conventional RT-PCR assay as the Bcl-2 gene could not be amplified using the conventional RT-PCR. Interestingly, the results in this study showed that the expression of Bcl-2 was higher in rats with marked lymphocytosis as compared to the leukaemic rats with normal to mildly increase in lymphocyte count. In conclusion, EvaGreen qRT-PCR assay is more sensitive compared to the conventional RT-PCR, and Bcl-2 gene is abundantly expressed in leukaemic rats with marked lymphocytosis compared to the leukaemic rats with normal to mildly increase in lymphocyte number.Bcl-2, leukaemia, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), EvaGreen qRT-PCR, conventional RT-PCR assays
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(Downloads: 9)
Abstract (Viewed: 1)The integrity of the endothelial layer of the blood vessel, intima, is critical since damage can lead to atherosclerosis. Assessment of its integrity is therefore very important although this can not be done through routine diagnostic analysis. An alternative non-invasive method should be established to assess its integrity. The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using an EvaGreen dye for the assessment of vascular endothelial damage-associated with chronic renal damage in rats via quantification of the expression level of CD146, which is one of the blood biomarkers of endovascular dysfunction and/or damage. Comparison of the sensitivity of the EvaGreen qRT-PCR and the conventional RT-PCR was also performed in this study. For this purpose, a total of 16 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided equally into two groups, namely the control and adenine. Results showed that rats fed with diet containing 0.75% adenine for six consecutive weeks developed chronic renal damage through elevations in the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood creatinine (Cr) levels, increased urine protein to creatinine ratio (UPC) and decreased creatinine clearance (CrCl). The confirmatory diagnosis of chronic renal damage was made through gross and histopathological examinations of the kidneys. The results were consistent with lesions of chronic renal damage. The expression of circulating CD146 was mildly increased in rats with chronic renal damage analysed using the EvaGreen qRT-PCR or the conventional RT-PCR, suggesting a mild degree of endovascular damage. The intensity of the EvaGreen qRT-PCR products, however, was brighter than the conventional RT-PCR, indicating that the EvaGreen qRT-PCR is more sensitive compared to conventional RT-PCR, which is further recommended for analysis of CD146 expression in rats. Adenine, CD146, vascular dysfunction and damage, chronic renal damage, real-time RT-PCR, conventional RT-PCR

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