PERTANIKA JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES

 

e-ISSN 2231-8534
ISSN 0128-7702

Home / Regular Issue / JSSH Vol. 31 (1) Mar. 2023 / JSSH-8637-2022

 

Development and Validation of Social Cynicism Scale for Women

Faiz Younas, Nasreen Akhtar and Vicar Solomon

Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, Volume 31, Issue 1, March 2023

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjssh.31.1.12

Keywords: Content validity, construct validity, dispositional cynicism, experiential cynicism, institutional cynicism, scale development, young adult women

Published on: 17 March 2023

The present investigation purported to develop and validate an indigenous social cynicism scale for young adult women. Following an exploratory sequential research design, the study involved three phases. In phase I, a qualitative study with (n = 20) young adult women is conducted to conceptualize the construct of social cynicism. The themes drawn from the data were used to develop a pool of 36 items. After extensive scrutiny and evaluation by five expert judges, 28 items were finalized that were phrased in a self-report five-point Likert rating scale. In phase II, the psychometric properties of the scale were established. Through non-probability purposive sampling, a sample of (n = 227) young adult women aged 18-28 years (M = 22.29 and SD = 2.06) was recruited for exploratory factor analysis. Principle Component Analysis was performed for factor extractions, while the Direct Oblimin method was applied for factor rotations. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy and Bartlett’s test of sphericity were found to be significant. As a result, a final scale of 19 items with a three-factor model, namely institutional, experiential and dispositional cynicism, emerged that accounted for 42.41% variance, with an alpha reliability of .83. In phase III, another sample of (n = 218) young adult women with an age range of 18–27 years (M = 22.48 and SD = 2.38) was recruited to run confirmatory factor analysis that revealed a good model fit and validated the three-dimensional structure of the scale.

  • Abubakar, A. M., Namin, B. H., Harazneh, I., Arasli, H., & Tunç, T. (2017). Does gender moderates the relationship between favoritism/nepotism, supervisor incivility, cynicism and workplace withdrawal: A neural network and SEM approach. Tourism Management Perspectives, 23, 129-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2017.06.001

  • Ahmad, N. M., Ahmad, M. M., & Masood, R. (2020). Socio-psychological implications of public harassment for women in the capital city of Islamabad. Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 27(1), 77-100. https://doi.org/10.1177/0971521519891480

  • Ahmad, S., Islam, T., & Kaleem, A. (2021). Workplace bullying in Pakistan: Mapping the implications of social cynicism and the moderation of Islamic work ethic. In P. D’Cruz., E. Noronha., & A. Mendonca (Eds.), Asian perspectives on workplace bullying and harassment (pp. 93-113). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-2362-2_4

  • Ahmed, B., Yousaf, F. N., & Asif, U. E. R. (2019). Combating street harassment: A challenge for Pakistan. Women & Criminal Justice, 31(4), 283-293. https://doi.org/10.1080/08974454.2019.1644697

  • Alexandra, V., Torres, M. M., Kovbasyuk, O., Addo, T. B., & Ferreira, M. C. (2017). The relationship between social cynicism belief, social dominance orientation, and the perception of unethical behaviour: A cross-cultural examination in Russia, Portugal, and the United States. Journal of Business Ethics, 146, 545-562. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2925-5

  • Ashraf, I., & Ali, A. (2018). Socio-economic well-being and women status in Pakistan: An empirical analysis (Publication No. 88972). Munich Personal RePEc Archive. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/88972/

  • Babakus, E., & Mangold, W. G. (1992). Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: An empirical investigation. Health Services Research, 26(6), 767.

  • Bedford, A., & Foulds, G. A. (1978). Personality Deviance Scale

  • Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Tellegen, A. (2008). MMPI-2-RF (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form): Manual for administration, scoring, and interpretation. University of Minnesota Press.

  • Bernardo, A. B. (2013). Hope grounded in belief: Influences of reward for application and social cynicism on dispositional hope. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(6), 522-528. https://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12081

  • Boateng, G. O., Neilands, T. B., Frongillo, E. A., Melgar-Quiñonez, H. R., & Young, S. L. (2018). Best practices for developing and validating scales for health, social, and behavioral research: A primer. Frontiers in Public Health, 6, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00149

  • Brandes, P. M. (1997). Organizational cynicism: Its nature, antecedents and consequences (Publication No. 9814494) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

  • Brockway, J. H., Carlson, K. A., Jones, S. K., & Bryant, F. B. (2002). Development and validation of a scale for measuring cynical attitudes toward college. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(1), 210-224. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.94.1.210

  • Burgess, S. (2015, September 21). The corrosive effects of social cynicism [Press release]. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Business School. http://businessschool.mandela.ac.za/article/the-corrosive-effects-of-social-cynicism

  • Butcher, J. N., Graham, J. R., Williams, C. L., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (1990). Development and use of the MMPI-2 Content Scales. University of Minnesota Press.

  • Byza, O. A., Schuh, S. C., Dörr, S. L., Spörrle, M., & Maier, G. W. (2017). Are two cynics better than one? Toward understanding effects of leader-follower (in‐)congruence in social cynicism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38(8), 1246-1259. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2200

  • Carter, N., Bryant-Lukosius, D., DiCenso, A., Blythe, J., & Neville, A. J. (2014). The use of triangulation in qualitative research. Oncology Nursing Forum, 41(5), 545-547. https://doi.org/10.1188/14.ONF.545-547

  • Chen, S. X., Fok, H. K., Bond, M. H., & Matsumoto, D. (2006). Personality and beliefs about the world revisited: Expanding the nomological network of social axioms. Personality and Individual Differences, 41(2), 201-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.01.009

  • Chen, S. X., Lam, B. C., Wu, W. C., Ng, J. C., Buchtel, E. E., Guan, Y., & Deng, H. (2016). Do people’s world views matter? The why and how. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110(5), 743-765. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000061

  • Cohen, R, J., Swerdlik, M, E., & Sturman, E, D. (2013). Psychological testing and assessment. McGraw Hill Education.

  • Deng, H., Guan, Y., Bond, M. H., Zhang, Z., & Hu, T. (2011). The interplay between social cynicism beliefs and person-organization fit on work‐related attitudes among Chinese employees. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(1), 160-178. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2010.00707.x

  • Field, A. (2018). Discovering statistics using IBM statistics. Sage Publications Limited.

  • Greenglass, E. R., Burke, R. J., & Fiksenbaum, L. (2001). Workload and burnout in nurses. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 11(3), 211-215. https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.614

  • Guest, G., Namey, E., & Chen, M. (2020). A simple method to assess and report thematic saturation in qualitative research. PLoS One, 15(5), Article e0232076. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0232076

  • Habib, S., Saleem, S., & Mahmood, Z. (2013). Development and validation of social intelligence scale for university students. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 28(1), 65-83.

  • Hafeez, E., & Zahid, L. (2021). Sexism and gender discrimination in Pakistan’s mainstream news media. In S. Jamil., B. Çoban., B. Ataman., & G. Appiah-Adjei (Eds.), Handbook of research on discrimination, gender disparity and safety risks in journalism (pp. 60-89). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-7998-6686-2.ch005

  • Hafeez, S. (2021, August 7). Pakistan’s problem with violence against women is growing impossible to ignore. The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2021/08/pakistans-problem-with-violence-against-women-is-growing-impossible-to-ignore/

  • Hathaway, S. R., & McKinley, J. C. (1943). The Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory. University of Minnesota Press.

  • Helgeson, V. S. (2020). Psychology of gender. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003016014

  • Hulin, C., Netemeyer, R., & Cudeck, R. (2001). Can a reliability coefficient be too high? Journal of Consumer Psychology, 10(1), 55-58.

  • Hutcheson, G. D. (2020). Principal component analysis. Sage Publications Limited.

  • Kanter, D. L., & Mirvis, P. H. (1989). The cynical Americans: Living and working in an age of discontent and disillusion. Jossey-Bass.

  • Kara, D., Uysal, M., & Magnini, V. P. (2012). Gender differences on job satisfaction of the five‐star hotel employees: The case of the Turkish hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(7), 1047-1065. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596111211258919

  • Khan, F. (2021, December 6). Pakistan sees rise in gender-based violence during COVID-19. The News. https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/914582-pakistan-sees-a-rise-in-gender-based-violence-during-covid-19

  • Kirmani, N. (2021, October 8). The past few months have been harrowing for Pakistani women. Aljazeera. https://www.aljazeera.com/opinions/2021/10/8/violence-against-women-in-pakistan-is-not-new-but-it-must-stop

  • Kwantes, C. T., & Bond, M. H. (2019). Organizational justice and autonomy as moderators of the relationship between social and organizational cynicism. Personality and Individual Differences, 151(1), Article 109391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.04.046

  • Lau, E. Y. Y., Li, C., Hui, C. H., Cheung, S. F., Lam, J., & Cheung, S. H. (2021). A longitudinal investigation of the bidirectional relationship of sleep quality with emotional stability and social cynicism in a large community sample. Sleep Health, 7(3), 384-389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2021.03.007

  • Leung, K., Bond, M. H., de Carrasquel, S. R., Muñoz, C., Hernández, M., Murakami, F., Yamaguchi, S., Bierbrauer, G., & Singelis, T. M. (2002). Social axioms: The search for universal dimensions of general beliefs about how the world functions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33(3), 286-302. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022102033003005

  • Leung, K., Ip, O. K., & Leung, K. K. (2010). Social cynicism and job satisfaction: A longitudinal analysis. Applied Psychology, 59(2), 318-338. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2009.00392.x

  • Leung, K., Lam, B. C. P., Bond, M. H., Conway, L. G., Gornick, L. J., Amponsah, B., Boehnke, K., Dragolov, G., Burgess, S. M., Golestaneh, M., Busch, H., Hofer, J., Espinosa, A. del C. D., Fardis, M., Ismail, R., Kurman, J., Lebedeva, N., Tatarko, A. N., Sam, D. L., … Zhou, F. (2012). Developing and evaluating the social axioms survey in eleven countries: Its relationship with the five-factor model of personality. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43(5), 833-857. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022111416361

  • Li, F., Zhou, F., & Leung, K. (2011). Expecting the worst: Moderating effects of social cynicism on the relationships between relationship conflict and negative affective reactions. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(3), 339-345. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-010-9192-3

  • Mills, C. M., & Keil, F. C. (2005). The development of cynicism. Psychological Science, 16(5), 385-390. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.01545.x

  • Montoya, A. K., & Edwards, M. C. (2021). The poor fit of model fit for selecting number of factors in exploratory factor analysis for scale evaluation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 81(3), 413-440. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164420942899

  • Munir, M. M., Munir, M. H., & Rubaca, U. (2021). The shadow pandemic: Violence against women in Pakistan during COVID-19 lockdown. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 22(5), 229-248.

  • Nalipay, M. J. N., Bernardo, A. B., & Mordeno, I. G. (2017). Posttraumatic growth in survivors of a natural disaster: The role of social axioms of religiosity, reward for application, and social cynicism. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(4), 342-353. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2016.1187199

  • Schaap, J. I., Stedham, Y., & Yamamura, J. H. (2008). Casino management: Exploring gender-based differences in perceptions of managerial work. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(1), 87-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2007.07.004

  • Stevens, J. (1996). Confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis, In J. P. Stevens (Ed.), Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Sciences (pp. 362-427). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • Tabassum, N. (2016). Women in Pakistan. Higher Education Commission Pakistan. http://prr.hec.gov.pk/jspui/handle/123456789/28

  • Töyry, S., Kalimo, R., Äärimaa, M., Juntunen, J., Seuri, M., & Räsänen, K. (2004). Children and work‐related stress among physicians. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 20(4), 213-221. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1009

  • Turner, J. H., & Valentine, S. R. (2001). Cynicism as a fundamental dimension of moral decision-making: A scale development. Journal of Business Ethics, 34(2), 123-136. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012268705059

  • West, B., Hillenbrand, C., & Money, K. (2015). Building employee relationships through corporate social responsibility: The moderating role of social cynicism and reward for application. Group & Organization Management, 40(3), 295-322. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601114560062

  • Williams, B., Onsman, A., & Brown, T. (2010). Exploratory factor analysis: A five-step guide for novices. Australasian Journal of Paramedicine, 8(3), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.33151/ajp.8.3.93

  • Yasin, S. A., & Aslam, S. (2018). School dropout of rural girls in Pakistan: Exploring the role of gender discrimination. Journal of Research & Reflections in Education, 12(1), 1-10.

  • Younas, F., Akhtar, N., & Solomon, V. (2021). What makes women social cynics? An exploratory study. Journal of Professional & Applied Psychology, 2(2), 218-234. https://doi.org/10.52053/jpap.v2i2.58

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID

JSSH-8637-2022

Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles