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Home / Regular Issue / JTAS Vol. 30 (1) Jan. 2022 / JST-2839-2021


A New Method to Estimate Peak Signal to Noise Ratio for Least Significant Bit Modification Audio Steganography

Muhammad Harith Noor Azam, Farida Ridzuan and M Norazizi Sham Mohd Sayuti

Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, Volume 30, Issue 1, January 2022


Keywords: Audio steganography, Least Significant Bit, peak-signal-to-noise-ratio estimator, trade-off

Published on: 10 January 2022

Audio steganography is implemented based on three main features: capacity, robustness, and imperceptibility, but simultaneously implementing them is still a challenge. Embedding data at the Least Significant Bit (LSB) of the audio sample is one of the most implemented audio steganography methods because the method will give high capacity and imperceptibility. However, LSB has the lowest robustness among all common methods in audio steganography. To cater to this problem, researchers increased the depth of the embedding level from fourth to sixth and eighth LSB level to improve its robustness feature. However, consequently, the imperceptibility feature, which is commonly measured by Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), is reduced due to the trade-off between imperceptibility and robustness. Currently, the lack of study on the estimation of the PSNR for audio steganography has caused the early assessment of the imperceptibility-robustness trade-off difficult. Therefore, a method to estimate PSNR, known as PSNR Estimator (PE), is introduced to enable early evaluation of imperceptibility feature for each stego-file produced by the audio steganography, which is important for the utilisation of embedding. The proposed PE estimates the PSNR based on the pattern collected from the embedment at different levels. From the evaluation, the proposed method has 99.9% of accuracy in estimating PSNR values at different levels. In comparison with the Mazdak Method, the proposed method performs better in all situations. In conclusion, the proposed PE can be used as a reference for embedding and further reducing the calculation complexity in finding the feasible value to minimise the trade-off between robustness and imperceptibility.

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