e-ISSN 2231-8542
ISSN 1511-3701

Home / Regular Issue / JTAS Vol. 30 (1) Jan. 2022 / JST-2978-2021


Tensile Behaviour of Slag-based Engineered Cementitious Composit

Chai Lian Oh, Siong Wee Lee, Norrul Azmi Yahya, Gajalakshm Pandulu and Mohd Raizamzamani Md Zain

Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, Volume 30, Issue 1, January 2022


Keywords: Crack, engineered cementitious composites, fibre, slag, tensile

Published on: 10 January 2022

Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) have become another alternative in the concrete industry due to their excellent strain capacity under uniaxial tension. Research and development for new ECC mix incorporating wastes remain open to fulfil the industrial needs to produce green and sustainable ECCs. This paper presents the experimental work on the tensile and cracking behaviour of ECCs utilising industrial waste, namely ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS), to replace cement. A total of four slag-based ECC mixes containing 2%–2.5% of PVA fibres and 50%-60% GGBS were investigated under uniaxial compressive and tensile tests. Compressive strength, tensile strength and the crack behaviours of the slag-based ECCs were evaluated and compared with a control mix. The experimental results show that the slag-based ECCs can achieve tensile strain capacity 2.6 %–2.75 % and ultimate tensile strength 1.43 MPa–2.82 MPa at 28 days. It was also found that the ECCs with GGBS and fibres formed few hairline cracks at the gage of the dog bone compared to brittle fracture in the control specimens.

  • Booya, E., Gorospe, K., Das, S., & Loh, P. (2020). The influence of utilizing slag in lieu of fly ash on the performance of engineered cementitious composites. Construction and Building Materials, 256, Article 119412.

  • Chen, Z., Yang, Y., & Yao, Y. (2013). Quasi-static and dynamic compressive mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composite incorporating ground granulated blast furnace slag. Materials & Design, 44, 500-508.

  • Du, Q., Cai, C., Lv, J., Wu, J., Pan, T., & Zhou, J. (2020). Experimental investigation on the mechanical properties and microstructure of basalt fiber reinforced engineered cementitious composite. Materials, 13(17), Article 3796.

  • Kim, J. K., Kim, J. S., Ha, G. J., & Kim, Y. Y. (2007). Tensile and fiber dispersion performance of ECC (engineered cementitious composites) produced with ground granulated blast furnace slag. Cement and Concrete Research, 37(7), 1096-1105.

  • Kumar, D., & Ranade, R. (2021). Development of strain-hardening cementitious composites utilizing slag and calcium carbonate powder. Construction and Building Materials, 273, Article 122028.

  • Lee, S. W., Oh, C. L., & Zain, M. R. M. (2019). Mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composites using local ingredients. Journal of Mechanical Engineering (JMechE), 16(2), 145-157.

  • Lee, S. W., Oh, C. L., & Zain, M. R. M. (2018). Evaluation of the design mix proportion on mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composites. In Key Engineering Materials (Vol. 775, pp. 589-595). Trans Tech Publications Ltd.

  • Lee, S. W., Oh, C. L., Zain, M. R. M., Yahya, N. A., & Rahman, A. A. (2019). Mechanical performances of green engineered cementitious composites incorporating various types of sand. In Key Engineering Materials (Vol. 821, pp. 512-517). Trans Tech Publications Ltd.

  • Li, V. C. (2003). On engineered cementitious composites (ECC) a review of the material and its applications. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 1(3), 215-230.

  • Ma, H., Qian, S., Zhang, Z., Lin, Z., & Li, V. C. (2015). Tailoring engineered cementitious composites with local ingredients. Construction and Building Materials, 101, 584-595.

  • Meng, D., Huang, T., Zhang, Y., & Lee, C. (2017). Mechanical behaviour of a polyvinyl alcohol fibre reinforced engineered cementitious composite (PVA-ECC) using local ingredients. Construction and Building Materials, 141, 259-270.

  • National Standard Authority of Ireland. (2005). Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures-part 1–1: General rules and rules for buildings. British Standard Institution.

  • Nguyễn, H. H., Choi, J. I., Park, S. E., Cha, S. L., Huh, J., & Lee, B. Y. (2020). Autogenous healing of high strength engineered cementitious composites (ECC) using calcium-containing binders. Construction and Building Materials, 265, Article 120857.

  • Sakulich, A. R. (2011). Reinforced geopolymer composites for enhanced material greenness and durability. Sustainable Cities and Society, 1(4), 195-210.

  • Yokota, H., Rokugo, K., & Sakata, N. (2008). JSCE recommendations for design and construction of high performance fiber reinforced cement composite with multiple fine cracks. In High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites. Springer.

  • Yu, K. Q., Lu, Z. D., Dai, J. G., & Shah, S. P. (2020). Direct tensile properties and stress - strain model of UHP-ECC. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 32(1), Article 04019334.

  • Yu, K., Li, L., Yu, J., Wang, Y., Ye, J., & Xu, Q. (2018). Direct tensile properties of engineered cementitious composites: a review. Construction and Building Materials, 165, 346-362.

  • Zhu, Y., Yang, Y., & Yao, Y. (2012). Use of slag to improve mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) with high volumes of fly ash. Construction and Building Materials, 36, 1076-1081.

ISSN 1511-3701

e-ISSN 2231-8542

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Recent Articles