e-ISSN 2231-8542
ISSN 1511-3701

Home / Regular Issue / JTAS Vol. 30 (4) Oct. 2022 / JST-3449-2022


Design Guidelines for Vegetative Approach Application to Mitigate Riverbank Landslides in Mangkang Wetan and Mangunharjo Villages, Semarang Coastal Area, Indonesia

Santy Paulla Dewi and Rina Kurniati

Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, Volume 30, Issue 4, October 2022


Keywords: Design, landslide, riverbank, vegetative approach

Published on: 28 September 2022

The Semarang coastal area is vulnerable to floods, land subsidence, and landslides, including Mangkang Wetan and Mangunharjo villages. The community villages struggle with flooding every year because of the riverbank landslides. The government’s efforts to improve the critical embankments have not yet reached these villages. The community prevents landslides by a conventional method, such as using sacks filled with sand. However, this effort did not make it significantly effective. Therefore, this study proposes a vegetative approach as an alternative effort to reduce the landslide possibility and provide directions for riverbank management. This approach emphasizes soil conservation by applying a suitable plant type to reduce the landslides possibility. Determining the design guidelines for the vegetative approach starts by analyzing the physical condition of the village and the river to specify zone types; then continues by analysis of the appropriate vegetation types. Afterward, determine the design direction for each zone and recommend a suitable type of vegetation. The analysis results show two strategies related to the possible application of a vegetative approach. The do-nothing strategy is for locations that cannot physically intervene because there is no river border. In contrast, the do something strategy is applied to locations that physically allow for a vegetative approach at the river border. However, no single effort can prevent landslides, so it needs to combine mechanical and vegetative approaches that adjust to the physical characteristic of the river and the soil type.

  • Adhitya, F., Rusdiana, O., & Saleh, M. B. (2016). Penentuan jenis tumbuhan lokasi dalam upaya mitigasi longsor dan teknik budidayanya pada areal rawan longsor di KPH Lawu DS: Studi kasus di RPH Cepoko [Determination of plant types in landslide mitigation efforts and their cultivation techniques in landslide prone areas in the Lawu Forest Management Unit (KPH) DS: A case study at the Cepoko Forest Management Resort (RPH)]. Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika, 8(1), 9-19.

  • Bariteau, L., Bouchard, D., Gagnon, G., Levasseur, M., Lapointe, S., & Bérubé, M. (2013). A riverbank erosion control method with environmental value. Ecological Engineering, 58, 384-392.

  • Barros, J. L., Tavares, A. O., & Santos, P. P. (2021). Land use and land cover dynamics in Leiria City: Relation between peri-urbanization processes and hydro-geomorphologic disasters. Natural Hazards, 106(1), 757-784.

  • Budi, P. K., & Wariyanto, A. (2003, October 6-9). Why vetiver grass fails to show its miracles in Central Java, Indonesia? In International Conference on Vetiver and Exhibition (pp. 1-6). Guangzhou, China.

  • Dariah, A., Sutono, S., Nurida, N. L., Hartatik, W., & Pratiwi, E. (2015). Pembenah tanah untuk meningkatkan produktivitas lahan pertanian [Soil Improvement to increase agricultural land productivity]. Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan, 9(2), 67-84.

  • de Jesús Arce-Mojica, T., Nehren, U., Sudmeier-Rieux, K., Miranda, P. J., & Anhuf, D. (2019). Nature-based solutions (NbS) for reducing the risk of shallow landslides: Where do we stand? International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 41(April), Article 101293.

  • Ducey, M. J., Johnson, K. M., Belair, E. P., & Cook, B. D. (2018). The influence of human demography on land cover change in the Great Lakes States, USA. Environmental Management, 62(6), 1089-1107.

  • Ghosh, C., & Bhattacharya, S. (2018). Landslides and erosion control measures by vetiver system. In R. S. I. Pal (Ed.), Disaster Risk Governance in India and Cross Cutting Issues (pp. 387–413). Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

  • Herman, M., Syakir, M., Pranowo, D., & Saefudin, S. (2013). Kemiri sunan (reutealis trisperma (blanco) airy shaw) tanaman penghasil minyak nabati dan konservasi lahan [Kemiri Sunan (Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw) vegetable oil-producing crops and land conversion]. Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development.

  • Hostettler, S., Jöhr, A., Montes, C., & D’Acunzi, A. (2019). Community-based landslide risk reduction: A review of a red cross soil bioengineering for resilience program in Honduras. Landslides, 16, 1779-1791.

  • Indrayati, A., & Hikmah, N. I. (2018). Pembelajaran bencana banjir Bandang dengan pendekatan geospasial di DAS Beringin Kota Semarang [Flash flood disaster lessons learned with geospatial approaches in the Beringin Watershed, Semarang City]. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Geotik 2018, 70-81. Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta.

  • Izzul, M., Noor, F., Bakhtiar, Y., & Saleh, A. (2020). Pemanfaatan tanaman sela pada lahan budidaya jambu kristal (Psidium guajava L.) di Desa Neglasari [Utilization of alley croping on crystal guava (Psidium guajava L.) Cultivation in Neglasari Village]. Jurnal Pusat Inovasi Masyarakat, 2(5), 763-770.

  • Kalsnes, B., & Capobianco, V. (2022). Use of vegetation for landslide risk mitigation. In C. Kondrup, P. Mercogliano, F. Bosello, J. Mysiak, E. Scoccimarro, A. Rizzo, R, Ebrey, M. de Ruiter, A. Jeuken & P. Watkiss (Eds.), Climate Adaptation Modelling (pp. 77-86). Springer Nature.

  • Komarawidjaja, W., & Garno, Y. S. (2016). Peran Rumput vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) dalam fitoremediasi pencemaran perairan sungai [The role of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) in phytoremediation of river water pollution]. Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan, 17(1), 7-14.

  • Kusnandar, A., & Kusminingrum, N. (2011). Reviewing Development of Vetiver Grass in Preventing Erosion and Shallow Landslides on Road Slopes (1st Ed.). Ministry of Public Works Republic of Indonesia.

  • Leknoi, U., & Likitlersuang, S. (2020). Good practice and lesson learned in promoting vetiver as solution for slope stabilisation and erosion control in Thailand. Land Use Policy, 99(July), Article 105008.

  • Li, Y., Zhang, X., Zhao, X., Ma, S., Cao, H., & Cao, J. (2016). Assessing spatial vulnerability from rapid urbanization to inform coastal urban regional planning. Ocean and Coastal Management, 123, 53-65.

  • Lobo, G. P., & Bonilla, C. A. (2017). A modeling approach to determining the relationship between vegetative filter strip design and sediment composition. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 237, 45-54.

  • Maryono, A. (2009). Kajian lebar sempadan sungai (studi kasus sungai-sungai di provinsi daerah istimewa Yogyakarta) [A study of stream buffer width (Case study of rivers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Province)]. Dinamika Teknik Sipil, 9(Januari), 55-66.

  • Mentari, M., Mulyaningsih, T., & Aryanti, E. (2018). Identifikasi bambu di Sub Daerah Aliran Sungai Kedome Lombok Timur dan alternatif manfaat untuk konservasi sempadan sungai [Identification of bamboo in the Kedome River Basin, East Lombok and alternative benefits for river border conservation]. Jurnal Penelitian Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai, 2(2), 111-122.

  • Ministry of Public Works. (2007). Guidelines for spatial planning, landslide disaster area. Indonesia.

  • Mondal, S., & Patel, P. P. (2020). Implementing vetiver grass-based riverbank protection programmes in rural West Bengal, India. Natural Hazards, 103(1), 1051-1076.

  • National Disaster Management Agency of Republic of Indonesia. (2015). Disaster Risk Study Document, Central Java Province, 2016 - 2020. National Disaster Management Agency of Republic of Indonesia.

  • Oliver, R. D., & Thomas, V. A. (2014). Micropolitan areas: Exploring the linkages between demography and land-cover change in the United States cities. Cities, 38, 84-94.

  • Patton, C. V., Sawicki, D. S., & Clark, J. J. (2016). Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning (3rd Ed.). Routledge.

  • Persichillo, M. G., Bordoni, M., Meisina, C., Bartelletti, C., Barsanti, M., Giannecchini, R., D’Amato Avanzi, G., Galanti, Y., Cevasco, A., Brandolini, P., & Galve, J. P. (2017). Shallow landslides susceptibility assessment in different environments. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 8(2), 748-771.

  • Putra, D. P., Suharyanto, & Nugroho, H. (2014). Perencanaan normalisasi sungai beringin di kota semarang [Planning for normalization of the Beringin River in the city of Semarang]. Karya Teknik Sipil, 3, 1083-1097.

  • Risdiyanto, I. (2016). Mapping high concervation value area for ecosystem services at streams and riparian buffer. Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia.

  • Semarang City Government. (2014). Semarang City Drainage System Master Plan 2011-2031. Indonesia.

  • Semarang City Government. (2016). Mid-term Development Plan Semarang 2016-2021. Indonesia.

  • Semarang City Government. (2017). Spatial Plan of Semarang City. Indonesia.

  • Semarang City Government. (2021). The Semarang City Government Socializes the Land Acquisition of Beringin River.

  • Sherly, M. A., Karmakar, S., Parthasarathy, D., Chan, T., & Rau, C. (2015). Disaster vulnerability mapping for a densely populated coastal urban area: An application to Mumbai, India. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 105(6), 1198-1220.

  • Sidle, R. C., & Onda, Y. (2004). Hydrogeomorphology: Overview of an emerging science. Hydrological Processes, 18(4), 597-602.

  • Sittadewi, E. H. (2016). Penentuan jenis vegetasi lokal untuk perlindungan tebing Sungai Siak dengan desain eko - Engineering tanpa turap [Determination of local vegetation types for protection of Siak River Cliffs with eco design - Engineering without sheeting]. Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan, 11(2), 139-322.

  • Su, Q., Chen, K., & Liao, L. (2021). The impact of land use change on disaster risk from the perspective of efficiency. Sustainability, 13(6), 1-14.

  • Subagyono, K., Marwanto, S., & Kurnia, U. (2003). Teknik konservasi tanah secara vegetatif. In Sesi Monograf No.1 Sumber Daya Tanah Indonesia (1st Ed.) [Vegetative soil conservation techniques. In Monograph Session No.1 Land Resources Indonesia (1st Ed.)]. Balai Penelitian Tanah.

  • Sutopo, I. G., Teguh, M., & Pradipta, N. W. (2019). Mitigasi Risiko Banjir Sungai Bringin Wilayah Hilir, Kabupaten Semarang Barat [Mitigation of the Beringin River Flood Risk in the downstream area, West Semarang Regency]. Universitas Islam Indonesia.

  • Zêzere, J. L., Trigo, R. M., & Trigo, I. F. (2005). Shallow and deep landslides induced by rainfall in the Lisbon region (Portugal): Assessment of relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 5(3), 331-344.

ISSN 1511-3701

e-ISSN 2231-8542

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Recent Articles