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Home / Regular Issue / JTAS Vol. 46 (3) Aug. 2023 / JTAS-2662-2022


Avian Metapneumovirus Infection in Poultry Flocks: A Review of Current Knowledge

Wafaa Abd El-Ghany

Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, Volume 46, Issue 3, August 2023


Keywords: Distribution, pathology, swollen head syndrome, turkey rhinotracheitis, vaccine

Published on: 30 August 2023

Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is one of the respiratory viruses that cause global economic losses in poultry production systems. Therefore, it was important to design a comprehensive review article that gives more information about aMPV infection regarding the distribution, susceptibility, transmission, pathogenesis, pathology, diagnosis, and prevention. The aMPV infection is characterized by respiratory and reproductive disorders in turkeys and chickens. The disease condition is turkey rhinotracheitis in turkeys and swollen head syndrome in chickens. Infection with aMPV is associated with worldwide economic losses, especially in complications with other infections or poor environmental conditions. The genus Metapneumovirus is a single-stranded enveloped RNA virus and contains A, B, C, and D subtypes. Meat and egg-type birds are susceptible to aMPV infection. The virus can transmit through aerosol, direct contact, mechanical, and vertical routes. The disease condition is characterized by respiratory manifestations, a decrease in egg production, growth retardation, increasing morbidity rate, and sometimes nervous signs and a high mortality rate, particularly in concurrent infections. Definitive diagnosis of aMPV is based mainly on isolation and identification methods, detection of the viral DNA, as well as seroconversion. Prevention of aMPV infection depends on adopting biosecurity measures and vaccination using inactivated, live attenuated, and recombinant or DNA vaccines.

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