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Physical Modelling of Flow and Head along with Dead-end and Looped Manifolds

Abdullah Amer, Thamer Ahmad Mohammad, Wissam Hameed Alawee and Nadhir Al-Ansari

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 29, Issue 4, October 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjst.29.4.04

Keywords: Dead-end manifold, friction correction factor, hydraulic behaviour, looped manifolds, statistical indices

Published on: 29 October 2021

In this study, physical models were designed and fabricated to investigate the hydraulic behaviour of dead-end and looped PVC manifolds. The physical models consisted of a water supply tank with overflow, PVC manifolds, steel supports, collection tank, pump, pressure sensors and valves to allow flow control. Throughout the study, the water level in the supply tank was kept constant. The hydraulic behaviour of dead-end manifolds was investigated using different spacing, S between outlets (S= 3m, S=2.5m, S=2m, S=1.5m, and S=0.75m). The hydraulic behaviour of looped manifolds was investigated using a single outlet spacing of 1.5m. The comparison between the hydraulic behaviour of looped and dead-end manifolds was carried out using the data of the 1.5m outlet spacing. The value of uniformity, U for dead-end and looped manifolds was 82% and 92%, respectively. The value of friction ratio, fn/f1, was found to be 33 and 0.18 for dead-end and looped manifolds, respectively. The experimental data of this study were used to validate selected formulae for estimation of the friction correction factor (G Factor). The results showed that the equation proposed by Alazba et al. (2012) yielded the most satisfactory estimation. The performance of the selected formulae was tested using two statistical indices.

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ISSN 0128-7680

e-ISSN 2231-8526

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