e-ISSN 2231-8542
ISSN 1511-3701

Home / Regular Issue / JTAS Vol. 45 (3) Aug. 2022 / JTAS-2463-2022


Potential of Plant Growth Regulators to Enhance Arsenic Phytostabilization by Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott

Waraporn Chouychai and Khanitta Somtrakoon

Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, Volume 45, Issue 3, August 2022


Keywords: Arsenic, Napier grass, phytoremediation, plant growth regulator

Published on: 8 August 2022

The limited translocation of arsenic from contaminated soil to plant biomass is one way to decrease human exposure to arsenic (As). Plant growth regulators (PGR), including salicylic acid, indole butyric acid, and calcium, have been reported to alleviate toxicity and decrease the accumulation of heavy metals in many plants. Thus, this study has investigated the effect of plant growth regulators, including salicylic acid, salicylic acid + calcium chloride, indole butyric acid, and indole butyric acid + calcium chloride, to stimulate the growth and phytostabilization of Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott grew in arsenic-spiked soil. The results showed shoot growth, root growth, and total chlorophyll content of P. purpureum cv. Mott grown in non-spiked soil were not significantly different from those grown in arsenic-spiked soil. Only the root-to-shoot ratio of plants grown under arsenic-spiked soil (0.28) was higher than that of non-spiked soil (0.19). Exogenous plant growth regulator application of each formula did not stimulate the growth of plants grown under both soil conditions. The most suitable plant growth regulator was indole butyric acid + calcium chloride, as the highest arsenic accumulation in plant roots was detected (47.38 mg/kg). It corresponds with the arsenic bioaccumulation factor, translocation factor, and efficiency, which were 4.52, 0.06, and 9.77% when using exogenously indole butyric acid + calcium chloride. Meanwhile, arsenic’s translocation factor and efficiency were low when using the other formulae of plant growth regulators. Thus, 0.001 mM indole butyric acid + 20 mM calcium chloride may be used for the cultivation of P. purpureum cv. Mott as a forage crop in areas with low levels of arsenic contamination because it could limit the amount of arsenic entering the food chain.

  • Arfi, F., Sami, F., Siddiqui, H., Bajguz, A., & Hayat, S. (2020). Salicylic acid in relation to other phytohormones in plant: A study towards physiology and signal transduction under challenging environment. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 175, 104040.

  • Berg, E. C., & Borges, A. C. (2020). Use of plants in the remediation of arsenic-contaminated waters. Water Environment Research, 92(10), 1669-1676.

  • Bobeautong, T., Insalud, N., Sungpalee, W., & Atnaseo, C. (2017). ผลของระดับฟอสฟอรัสต่อการพัฒนาระบบรากข้าว [Effect of phosphorus levels on rice root development]. Khon Kaen Agriculture Journal, 45(Suppl. 1), 997-1002.

  • Boonmeerati, U., & Sampanpanish, P. (2021). Enhancing arsenic phytoextraction of dwarf Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott) from gold mine tailings by electrokinetics remediation with phosphate and EDTA. Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste, 25(4), 04021027.

  • Boorboori, M. R., Gao, Y., Wang, H., & Fang, C. (2021). Usage of Si, P, Se, and Ca decrease arsenic concentration/toxicity in rice, a review. Applied Sciences, 11(17), 8090.

  • Calvelo Pereira, R., Monterroso, C., & Macías, F. (2010). Phytotoxicity of hexachlorocyclohexane: Effect on germination and early growth of different plant species. Chemosphere, 79(3), 326–333.

  • Castaldi, P., Silvetti, M., Manzano, R., Brundu, G., Roggero, P. P., & Garau, G. (2018). Mutual effect of Phragmites australis, Arundo donax and immobilization agents on arsenic and trace metals phytostabilization in polluted soils. Geoderma, 314, 63-72.

  • Hammami, H., Parsa, M., Mohassel, M. H. R., Rahimi, S., & Mijani, S. (2016). Weeds ability to phytoremediate cadmium-contaminated soil. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 18(1), 48-53.

  • Hauptvogl, M., Kotrla, M., Prčík, M., Pauková, Ž, Kováčik, M., & Lošák, T. (2020). Phytoremediation potential of fast-growing energy plants: Challenges and perspectives - A review. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 29(1), 505-516.

  • He, Y., Zhang, T., Sun, Y., Wang, X., Cao, Q., Fang, Z., Chang, M., Cai, Q., & Lou, L. (2021). Exogenous IAA alleviates arsenic toxicity to rice and reduces arsenic accumulation in rice grains. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 41, 734-741.

  • Huang, X.-D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D. M., Glick, B. R., & Greenberg, B. M. (2004). Response of three grass species to creosote during phytoremediation. Environmental Pollution, 130(3), 453-363.

  • Ishii, Y., Hamano, K., Kang, D.-J., Idota, S., & Nishiwaki, A. (2015). Cadmium phytoremediation potential of Napier grass cultivated in Kyushu, Japan. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, 2015, 756270.

  • Khushboo, Bhardwaj, K., Singh, P., Raina, M., Sharma, V., & Kumar, D. (2018). Exogenous application of calcium chloride in wheat genotypes alleviates negative effect of drought stress by modulating antioxidant machinery and enhanced osmolyte accumulation. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant, 54, 495-507.

  • Kowitwiwat, A., & Sampanpanish, P. (2020). Phytostabilization of arsenic and manganese in mine tailings using Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott supplemented with cow manure and acacia wood-derived biochar. Heliyon, 6(7), e04552.

  • Kumari, A., & Pandey-Rai, S. (2018). Enhanced arsenic tolerance and secondary metabolism by modulation of gene expression and proteome profile in Artemisia annua L. after application of exogenous salicylic acid. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 132, 590-602.

  • Loukola-Ruskeeniemi, K., Müller, I., Reichel, S., Jones, C., Battaglia-Brunet, F., Elert, M., Le Guédard, M., Hatakka, T., Hellal, J., Jordan, I., Kaija, J., Keiski, R. L., Pinka, J., Tarvainen, T., Turkki, A., Turpeinen, E., & Valkama, H. (2022). Risk management for arsenic in agricultural soil–water systems: Lessons learned from case studies in Europe. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 424(Part D), 127677.

  • Maghsoudi, K., Arvin, M. J., & Ashraf, M. (2020). Mitigation of arsenic toxicity in wheat by the exogenously applied salicylic acid, 24-epi-brassinolide and silicon. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 20, 577-588.

  • Mateo, C., Navarro, M., Navarro, C., &. Leyva, A. (2019). Arsenic phytoremediation: Finally a feasible approach in the near future. In H. Saldarriaga-Noreña, m. a. Murillo-Tovar, r. Farooq, R. Dongre, & S. Riaz (Eds.), Environmental chemistry and recent pollution control approaches. IntechOpen.

  • Medvedev, S. S. (2005). Calcium signaling system in plants. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 52(2), 249–270.

  • Mehmood, T., Liu, C., Niazi, N. K., Gaurav, G. K., Ashraf, A., & Bibi, I. (2021). Compost-mediated arsenic phytoremediation, health risk assessment and economic feasibility using Zea mays L. in contrasting textured soils. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 23(9), 899–910.

  • Mitra, A., Chatterjee, S., Moogouei, R., & Gupta, D. K. (2017). Arsenic accumulation in rice and probable mitigation approaches: A review. Agronomy, 7(4), 67.

  • Piacentini, D., Della Rovere, F., Sofo, A, Fattorini, L., Falasca, G., & Altamura, M. M. (2020). Nitric oxide cooperates with auxin to mitigate the alterations in the root system caused by cadmium and arsenic. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11, 1182.

  • Rafiq, M., Shahid, M., Abbas G., Shamshad, S., Khalid S., Niazi, N. K., & Dumat, C. (2017). Comparative effect of calcium and EDTA on arsenic uptake and physiologicalattributes of Pisum sativum. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 19(7), 662-669.

  • Rahman, A., Mostofa, G., Alam, M. M., Nahar, K., Hasanuzzaman, M., & Fujita, M. (2015). Calcium mitigates arsenic toxicity in rice seedlings by reducing arsenic uptake and modulating the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems and stress markers. BioMed Research International, 2015, 340812.

  • Sampanpanish, P., & Suwattiga, P. (2017). Removal of arsenic and manganese from the tailing storage facility of a gold mine using Vetiveria zizanioides, Bambusa bambos and Pennisetum purpureum. Soil and Environment, 36(2), 114-119.

  • Sanyal, T., Bhattacharjee, P., Paul, S., & Bhattacharjee, P. (2020) Recent advances in arsenic research: Significance of differential susceptibility and sustainable strategies for mitigation. Frontiers in Public Health, 8, 464.

  • Sarath, N. G., Shackira, A. M., El-Serehy, H. A., Hefft, D. I., & Puthur, J. T. (2022). Phytostabilization of arsenic and associated physio-anatomical changes in Acanthus ilicifolius L. Environmental Pollution, 298, 118828.

  • Saruhan, N., Saglam, A., & Kadioglu, A. (2012). Salicylic acid pretreatment induces drought tolerance and delays leaf rolling by inducing antioxidant systems in maize genotypes. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 34, 97-106.

  • Singh, A. P., Dixit, G., Kumar, A., Mishra, S., Kumar, N., Dixit, S., Singh, P. K., Dwivedi, S., Trivedi, P. K., Pandey, V., Dhankher, O. P., Norton, G. J., Chakrabarty, D., & Tripathi, R. D. (2017). A protective role for nitric oxide and salicylic acid for arsenite phytotoxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 115, 163-173.

  • Singh, R., Parihar, P., & Prasad, S. M. (2020). Interplay of calcium and nitric oxide in improvement of growth and arsenic-induced toxicity in mustard seedlings. Scientific Report, 10, 6900.

  • Singh, R., Parihar, P., & Prasad, S.M. (2018). Sulfur and calcium simultaneously regulate photosynthetic performance and nitrogen metabolism status in As-challenged Brassica juncea L. seedlings. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, 772.

  • Sukreeyapongse, O., Tepwituksakit, C., & Notesiri, N. (2009). Arsenic in soil, water and plant at contaminated sites and in agricultural soil of Thailand.

  • Upadhyay, M. K., Shukla, A., Yadav, P., & Srivastava, S. (2019). A review of arsenic in crops, vegetables, animals and food products. Food Chemistry, 276, 608-618.

  • Votrubová, O., & Votruba, M. (1986). The influence of IAA on the uptake of potassium, calcium, magnesium, water absorption and growth in young maize seedlings. Biologia Plantarum, 28, 460.

  • Wani, A. B., Chadar, H., Wani, A. H., Singh, S., & Upadhyay, N. (2017). Salicylic acid to decrease plant stress. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 15, 101-123.

  • Weerasiri, T., Wirojanagud, W., & Srisatit, T. (2014). Assessment of potential location of high arsenic contamination using fuzzy overlay and spatial anisotropy approach in iron mine surrounding area. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, 905362.

  • Xu, Z., Mei, X., Tan, L., Li, Q., Wang, L., He, B., Guo, S., Zhou, C., & Ye, H. (2018). Low root/shoot (R/S) biomass ratio can be an indicator of low cadmium accumulation in the shoot of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) cultivars. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25, 36328–36340.

  • Yanitch, A., Kadria, H., Frenette-Dussaulta, C., Jolya, S., Pitrea, F. E., & Labrecquea, F. (2020). A four-year phytoremediation trial to decontaminate soil polluted by wood preservatives: Phytoextraction of arsenic, chromium, copper, dioxins and furans. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 22(14), 1505–1514.

  • Zine, H., Midhat, L., Hakkou, R., Adnani, M. E., & Ouhammou, A. (2020). Guidelines for a phytomanagement plan by the phytostabilization of mining wastes. Scientific African, 10, e00654.

ISSN 1511-3701

e-ISSN 2231-8542

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Recent Articles