e-ISSN 2231-8526
ISSN 0128-7680

Home / Regular Issue / JST Vol. 31 (3) Apr. 2023 / JST-3528-2022


Influence of Carrier Agents Concentrations and Inlet Temperature on the Physical Quality of Tomato Powder Produced by Spray Drying

S. M. Anisuzzaman, Collin G. Joseph and Fatin Nadiah Ismail

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 31, Issue 3, April 2023


Keywords: Carrier agents, gum Arabic, hygroscopicity, maltodextrin, spray drying

Published on: 7 April 2023

The study aims to obtain spray-dried tomato powders with a high and effective product yield and enhanced powder quality. The experiment for this investigation entailed the use of several carrier agents, which were maltodextrin (MD) of 4-7 dextrose equivalents (DE), MD of 10-12 DE, and gum Arabic (GA), each in varied concentrations of 5% and 10% with spray drying inlet temperatures of 140°C, 150°C, and 160°C. Powder yield, bulk density, hygroscopicity, moisture content, water solubility, water absorption, color properties, particle size, and powder morphology were all evaluated in spray-dried tomato powders. The results revealed that the stability of the tomato powder is considerably better at high temperatures and concentrations (at 10%, 160oC), with MD 4-7 DE being the best carrier agent among the three tested carrier agents. According to the powder analysis, the product has a moisture content of 3.17 ± 0.29%, the highest yield percentage of 32.1%, a low bulk density of 0.2943 ± 0.01 g/cm3, the lowest hygroscopicity at 5.67± 0.58 %, a high water solubility index (WSI) at 89.98 ± 1.25%, a low water absorption index (WAI) at 6.22 ± 0.22%, an intermediate particle size of 24.73 µm, and color L*, a*,b* values at 31.59 ± 0.03, 11.62 ± 0.08 and 13.32 ± 0.12. The result showed that at higher temperatures and higher concentrations, the powder characteristics are more likely to have a higher yield, WSI, and larger particle size, as well as lower bulk density, hygroscopicity, moisture content, WAI, and color index.

  • Adak, N., Heybeli, N., & Ertekin, C. (2017). Infrared drying of strawberry. Food Chemistry, 219, 109-116.

  • Aderibigbe, O. R., Owolade, O. S., Egbekunle, K. O., Popoola, F. O., & Jiboku, O. O. (2018). Quality attributes of tomato powder as affected by different pre-drying treatments. International Food Research Journal, 25(3), 1126-1132.

  • AOAC. (2012). Official Methods of Analysis: Association of Official Analytical Chemists (19th ed.).

  • Bhandari, B., & Howes, T. (2005). Relating the stickiness property of foods undergoing drying and dried products to their surface energetics. Drying Technology, 23(4), 781-797.

  • Cai, Y. Z., & Corke, H. (2000). Production and properties of spray-dried amaranthus betacyanon pigments. Journal of Food Science, 65(7), 1248-1252.

  • Ciurzyńska, A., & Lenart, A. (2011). Freeze-drying - Application in food processing and biotechnology - A review. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 61(3), 165-171.

  • Compaore, A., Dissa, A. O., Rogaume, Y., Putranto, A., Chen, X. D., Mangindaan, D., Zoulalian, A, Rémond, R., & Tiendrebeogo, E. (2017). Application of the reaction engineering approach (REA) for modeling of the convective drying of onion. Drying Technology, 35(4), 500-508.

  • Caparino, O. A., Tang, J., Nindo, C. I., Sablani, S. S., Powers, J. R., & Fellman, J. K. (2012). Effect of drying methods on the physical properties and microstructures of mango (Philippine ‘Carabao’ var.) powder. Journal of Food Engineering, 111(1), 135-148.

  • Chegini, R. G., & Ghobadian, B. (2007). Spray dryer parameters for fruit juice drying. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(2), 230-236.

  • da Costa Ribeiro, A. S., Aguiar-Oliveira, E., & Maldonado, R. R. (2016). Optimization of osmoticdehydration of pear followed by conventional drying and their sensory quality. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 72, 407-415.

  • Eren, I., & Kaymak-Ertekin, F. (2007). Optimization of osmotic dehydration of potato using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Engineering, 79(1), 344-352.

  • Garofulić, I. E., Zorić, Z., Pedisić, S., & Dragović-Uzelac, V. (2016). Optimization of sour cherry juice spray drying as affected by carrier material and temperature. Food Technology & Biotechnology, 54(4), 441-449.

  • Gouaou, I., Shamaei, S., Koutchoukali, M.S., Bouhelassa, M., Tsotsas, E., & Kharaghani, A. (2019). Impact of operating conditions on a single droplet and spray drying of hydroxypropylated pea starch: Process performance and final powder properties. Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering, 14(1), Article e2268.

  • Goula, A. M., & Adamopoulos, K. G. (2005). Stability of lycopene during spray drying of tomato pulp. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 38(5), 479-487.

  • Goula, A. M., & Adamopoulos, K. G. (2008). Effect of maltodextrin addition during spray drying of tomato pulp in dehumidified air: I. Drying kinetics and product recovery. Drying Technology, 26(6), 714-725.

  • Grabowski, J. A., Truong, V. D., & Daubert, C. R. (2006). Spray drying of amylase hydrolyzed sweet potato puree and physicochemical properties of powder. Journal of Food Science, 71(5), E209-E217.

  • Haque, M., & Adhikari, B. (2014). Drying and denaturation of proteins in spray drying process. In A. S. Mujumdar (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial Drying (pp. 971-983). CRC Press.

  • Hii C. L., Ong S. P., Yap J. Y., Putranto A., & Mangindaan, D. (2021). Hybrid drying of food and bioproducts: A review. Drying Technology, 39(11), 1554-1576.

  • Ismail, M. H., Khan, K. A., Ngadisih, N., Irie M, Ong S. P, Hii, C. L., & Law, C. L. (2020). Two-step falling rate in the drying kinetics of rice noodle subjected to pre-treatment and temperature. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 44(11), Article e14849.

  • Jafari, S., Ghalenoei, M., & Dehnad, D. (2017). Influence of spray drying on water solubility index, apparent density, and anthocyanin content of pomegranate juice powder. Powder Technology, 311, 59-65.

  • Jittanit, W., Niti-Att, S., & Techanuntachikul, O. (2010). Study of spray drying of pineapple juice using maltodextrin as an adjunct. Chiang Mai Journal of Science, 36(3), 498-506.

  • Jittanit, W., Chantara-In, M., Deying, T., & Ratanavong, W. (2011). Production of tamarind powder by drum dryer using maltodextrin and Arabic gum as adjuncts. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 33(1), 33-41.

  • Kwapinska, M., & Zbicinski, I. (2005). Prediction of final product properties after cocurrent spray drying. Drying Technology, 23(8), 1653-1665.

  • Lee, J. K. M., Taip, F. S., & Abdullah, Z. (2018). Effectiveness of additives in spray drying performance: A review. Food Research, 2(6), 486-499.

  • Li, T., Yang, X., Yu, Y., Si, X., Zhai, X., Zhang, H., Dong, W., Gao, C., & Xu, C. (2018). Domestication of wild tomato is accelerated by genome editing. Nature Biotechnology, 36, 1160-1163.

  • Martínez-Huélamo, M., Vallverdú-Queralt, A., Di Lecce, G., Valderas-Martínez, P., Tulipani, S., Jáuregui, O., Escribano-Ferrer, E., Estruch, R, Illan, M., & Lamuela-Raventós, R. M. (2016). Bioavailability of tomato polyphenols is enhanced by processing and fat addition: Evidence from a randomized feeding trial. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 60(7), 1578-1589. https://

  • Muzaffar, K., Dinkarrao B. V., & Kumar, P. (2016) Optimization of spray drying conditions for production of quality pomegranate juice powder. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2, 1-9.

  • Muzaffar, K., Nayik, G. A., & Kumar, P. (2015). Stickiness problem associated with spray drying of sugar and acid rich foods: A mini review. Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, S12:003, 1-3.

  • Nowak, D., & Jakubczyk, E. (2020). The freeze-drying of foods - The characteristic of the process course and the effect of its parameters on the physical properties of food materials. Foods, 9(10), Article 1488.

  • Oliveira, D. M., Clemente, E., & da Costa, J. M. (2012). Hygroscopic behavior and degree of caking of Grugru palm (Acrocomia aculeata) powder. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(10), 2783-2789.

  • Osman, A. F. A., & Endut, N. (2009). Spray drying of roselle-pineapple juice effects of inlet temperature and maltodextrin on the physical properties. In Second International Conference on Environmental and Computer Science (pp. 267-270). IEEE Publishing.

  • Patel, K. C., & Chen, X. D. (2008). Sensitivity analysis of the reaction engineering approach to modeling spray drying of whey proteins concentrate. Drying Technology, 26(11), 1334-1343.

  • Phisut, N. (2012). Spray drying technique of fruit juice powder: Some factors influencing properties of product. International Food Research Journal, 19(4), 1297-1306.

  • Phoungchandang, S., & Sertwasana, A. (2010). Spray-drying of ginger juice and physicochemical properties of ginger powders. ScienceAsia, 36, 40-45.

  • Pourashouri, P., Shabanpour, B., Razavi, S., Jafari, S., Shabani, A., & Aubourg, S. (2014). Impact of wall materials on physicochemical properties of microencapsulated fish oil by spray drying. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7, 2354-2365. https://doi/10.1007/s11947-013-1241-2

  • Pu, H., Li, Z., Hui, J., & Raghavan, G. S. V. (2016). Effect of relative humidity on microwave drying of carrot. Journal of Food Engineering, 190, 167-175.

  • Raiola, A., Rigano, M. M., Calafiore, R., Frusciante, L., & Barone, A. (2014). Enhancing the health-promoting effects of tomato fruit for biofortified food. Mediators of Inflammation, 2014, Article 139873.

  • Sabhadinde, V. N. (2014). The physicochemical and storage properties of spray dried orange juice powder. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 4(4), 153-159.

  • Shishir, M. R. I., & Chen, W. (2017). Trends of spray drying: A critical review on drying of fruit and vegetable juices. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 65, 49-67.

  • Shrestha, A. K., Ua-arak, T., Adhikari, B. R., Howes, T., & Bhandari, B. R. (2007). Glass transition behavior of spray dried orange juice powder measures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal mechanical compression test (TMCT). International Journal of Food Properties, 10(3), 661-673.

  • Souza, A. L. R., Hidalgo-Chávez, D. W., Pontes, S. M., Gomes, F. S., Cabral, L. M. C., & Tonon, R.V. (2018). Microencapsulation by spray drying of a lycopene-rich tomato concentrate: Characterization and stability. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 91, 286-292.

  • Sudeep, G., Indira T. N., & Bhattacharya, S. (2010). Agglomeration of a model food powder: Effect of maltodextrin and gum Arabic dispersions on flow behavior and compacted mass. Journal of Food Engineering, 96(2), 222-228.

  • Szadzińska, J., Łechtańska, J., Kowalski, S. J., & Stasiak, M. (2017). The effect of high power airborne ultrasound and microwaves on convective drying effectiveness and quality of green pepper. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 34, 531-539.

  • Tonon, V. R., Brabet, C., & Hubinger, M. (2008). Influence of process conditions on the physicochemical properties of acai powder produced by spray drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 88(3), 411-418.

  • Tonon, V. R., Brabet, C., & Hubinger, M. (2011). Spray drying of acai juice: Effect of inlet temperature and type of carrier agent. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 35(5), 691-700.

  • Uyar, R., Bedane, T. F., Erdogdu, F., Palazoglu, T. K., Farag, K. W., & Marra, F. (2015). Radio-frequency thawing of food products - A computational study. Journal of Food Engineering, 146, 163-171.

  • Wang, B., Timilsena, Y. P., Blanch, E., & Adhikari, B. (2017). Characteristics of bovine lactoferrin powders produced through spray and freeze-drying processes. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 95, 985-994.

  • Ziaforoughi, A., & Esfahani, J. A. (2016). A salient reduction of energy consumption and drying time in a novel PV-solar collector-assisted intermittent infrared dryer. Solar Energy, 136, 428-436.

  • Zielinska, M., & Michalska, A. (2016). Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture. Food Chemistry, 212, 671-680.

  • Zhu, C., Shoji, Y., McCray, S., Burke M, Hartman, C. E., Chichester, J. A., Breit, J., Yusibov, V., Chen, D., & Lal, M. (2014). Stabilization of HAC1 influenza vaccine by spray drying: Formulation development and process scale-up. Pharmaceutical Research, 31, 3006-3018.