e-ISSN 2231-8526
ISSN 0128-7680

Home / Regular Issue / JST Vol. 31 (3) Apr. 2023 / JST-3621-2022


The Characteristics of Polymer Concrete Reinforced with Polypropylene Fibres Under Axial and Lateral Compression Loads

Nur Aqilah Azman, Agusril Syamsir, Mohd Supian Abu Bakar, Muhammad Asyraf Muhammad Rizal, Khairul Amri Sanusi and Mohammed Jalal Abdullah

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 31, Issue 3, April 2023


Keywords: Axial and lateral, compression load, material characteristics, polymer concrete, polypropylene fibre

Published on: 7 April 2023

The use of cement is expected to increase over the years as the infrastructure continues to develop, and the needs to repair or rehabilitate an old and deteriorated building are necessary. However, many investigations have been conducted to establish promising polymer concrete applications in the last few decades. Meanwhile, using concrete in the construction industry has led to environmental issues. It is because relying on cement production in concrete will contribute to about 7% of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, polymer concrete was introduced in this study to minimise the use of cement in the industry. This research investigated the influence of different amounts of polypropylene (PP) fibre content on polymer concrete (PC) properties by determining the compressive strength, flexural strength and indirect tensile strength. Furthermore, the results of PC failure characteristics have been discussed. The polymer concrete specimens in this study have been cast into cylinders and prismatic specimens using PVC pipe and plywood formwork to determine the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength. By reinforcing PP fibre in the polymer concrete with a specific percentage of fibre reinforced, the overall strength of the polymer concrete was improved. Based on the compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural test results, it has been hypothesised that the 0.16% PP fibre will considerably improve polymer concrete. Additionally, PP fibre maintains a moisture content of less than 0.5% in the aggregates, resulting in a significant enhancement in the mechanical properties of polymer concrete.

  • Abdulrahman, H., Muhamad, R., Visintin, P., & Shukri, A. A. (2022). Mechanical properties and bond stress-slip behaviour of fly ash geopolymer concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 327, Article 126909.

  • Afroughsabet, V., & Ozbakkaloglu, T. (2015). Mechanical and durability properties of high-strength concrete containing steel and polypropylene fibers. Construction and Building Materials, 94, 73-82.

  • Agusril, S. T., Nor, N. M., & Zhao, Z. J. (2012). Failure analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) bridge using composite material failure theories. In Advanced Materials Research (Vol. 488, pp. 525-529). Trans Tech Publications Ltd.

  • Akid, A. S. M., Hossain, S., Munshi, M. I. U., Elahi, M. M. A., Sobuz, M. H. R., Tam, V. W. Y., & Islam, M. S. (2021). Assessing the influence of fly ash and polypropylene fiber on fresh, mechanical and durability properties of concrete. Journal of King Saud University-Engineering Sciences, 1-11.

  • Arulmoly, B., Konthesingha, C., & Nanayakkara, A. (2021). Performance evaluation of cement mortar produced with manufactured sand and offshore sand as alternatives for river sand. Construction and Building Materials, 297, Article 123784.

  • ASTM. (2001). Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens 1 - ASTM C39/C39M - Standard. In Annual Book of ASTM Standards.

  • ASTM. (2016). Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (using Simple Beam with Center-Point Loading)1 - C293/C293M - 16 - Standard. In Annual Book of ASTM Standards. 10.1520/C0293_C0293M-16

  • Asyraf, M. R. M., Ishak, M. R., Syamsir, A., Amir, A. L., Nurazzi, N. M., Norrrahim, M. N. F., Asrofi, M., Rafidah, M., Ilyas, R. A., Rashid, M. Z. A., & Razman, M. R. (2022). Filament-wound glass-fibre reinforced polymer composites: Potential applications for cross arm structure in transmission towers. Polymer Bulletin, 80, 1059-1084.

  • Bedi, R., Chandra, R., Singh, S. P., Martínez-lópez, M., Martínez-barrera, G., Salgado-delgado, R., Gencel, O., Parker, E. E., Moffett, E. W., Ferdous, W., Manalo, A. C., Wong, H. S., Abousnina, R., AlAjarmeh, O. S., Zhuge, Y., Schubel, P., Afroughsabet, V., Ozbakkaloglu, T., Blazy, J., … & Hss, J. (2021). Optimal design for epoxy polymer concrete based on mechanical properties and durability aspects. Construction and Building Materials, 167, 185-196.

  • Blazy, J., & Blazy, R. (2021). Polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete and its application in creating architectural forms of public spaces. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 14, Article e00549.

  • Broda, J. (2016). Application of polypropylene fibrillated fibres for reinforcement of concrete and cement mortars. In High Performance Concrete Technology and Applications (pp. 189-204). IntechOpen Limited.

  • Ferdous, W., Manalo, A., Wong, H. S., Abousnina, R., AlAjarmeh, O. S., Zhuge, Y., & Schubel, P. (2020). Optimal design for epoxy polymer concrete based on mechanical properties and durability aspects. Construction and Building Materials, 232, Article 117229.

  • Fluminense, U. F. (2014). Mechanical characterization of fiber reinforced polymer concrete. Materials Research, 8(3), 357-360.

  • Gagandeep. (2021). Experimental study on strength characteristics of polymer concrete with epoxy resin. Materials Today: Proceedings, 37, 2886-2889.

  • Ghasemi, Y. (2019). Flowability and proportioning of cementitious mixtures (Master thesis). Lulea University of Technology, Sweden.

  • Gorninski, J. P., Molin, D. C. D., & Kazmierczak, C. S. (2007). Strength degradation of polymer concrete in acidic environments. Cement and Concrete Composites, 29(8), 637-645.

  • Guo, L., Zhang, F., Zhong, L., Guo, L., & Wang, L. (2021). Texture analysis of the microstructure of concrete with different concentrations of superabsorbent polymer after internal curing. Materials Today Communications, 27, Article 102361.

  • Hameed, A. M., & Hamza, M. T. (2019). Characteristics of polymer concrete produced from wasted construction materials. Energy Procedia, 157(2018), 43-50.

  • Harison, A., Srivastava, V., & Herbert, A. (2014). Effect of fly ash on compressive strength of Portland pozzolona cement concrete. Journal of Academia and Industrial Research, 2(8), 476-479.

  • Hsie, M., Tu, C., & Song, P. S. (2008). Mechanical properties of polypropylene hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete. Materials Science and Engineering A, 494(1-2), 153-157.

  • Jafari, K., Tabatabaeian, M., Joshaghani, A., & Ozbakkaloglu, T. (2018). Optimizing the mixture design of polymer concrete: An experimental investigation. Construction and Building Materials, 167, 185-196.

  • Jo, B., Park, S., & Kim, D. (2008). Mechanical properties of nano-MMT reinforced polymer composite and polymer concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 22(1), 14-20.

  • Kayali, O., Haque, M. N., & Zhu, B. (2003). Some characteristics of high strength fiber reinforced lightweight aggregate concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, 25(2), 207-213.

  • Liu, R., Li, T., & Greene, R. (2020). Migration and inequality in rental housing: Affordability stress in the Chinese cities. Applied Geography, 115, Article 102138.

  • Manjunatha, M., Preethi, S., Malingaraya, Mounika, H. G., Niveditha, K. N., & Ravi. (2021). Life cycle assessment (LCA) of concrete prepared with sustainable cement-based materials. Materials Today: Proceedings, 47(13), 3637-3644.

  • Martínez-López, M., Martínez-Barrera, G., Salgado-Delgado, R., & Gencel, O. (2021). Recycling polypropylene and polyethylene wastes in production of polyester based polymer mortars. Construction and Building Materials, 274, Article 121487.

  • McCarthy, M. J., Yakub, H. I., & Csetenyi, L. J. (2022). Impact of fly ash production and sourcing changes on chemical and physical aspects of concrete durability. Construction and Building Materials, 342, Article 127313.

  • Mocharla, I. R., Selvam, R., Govindaraj, V., & Muthu, M. (2022). Performance and life-cycle assessment of high-volume fly ash concrete mixes containing steel slag sand. Construction and Building Materials, 341, Article 127814.

  • Mohamad, D., Syamsir, A., Beddu, S., Kamal, N. L. M., Zainoodin, M. M., Razali, M. F., Abas, A., Seman, S. A. H. A., & Ng, F. C. (2019). Effect of laminate properties on the failure of cross arm structure under multi-axial load. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 530(1), Article 012029.

  • Oey, T., Timmons, J., Stutzman, P., Bullard, J. W., Balonis, M., Bauchy, M., & Sant, G. (2017). An improved basis for characterizing the suitability of fly ash as a cement replacement agent. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 100(10), 4785-4800.

  • Ohama, Y., & Demura, K. (1982). Relation between curing conditions and compressive strength of polyester resin concrete. International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete, 4(4), 241-244.

  • Otoom, O. F., Lokuge, W., Karunasena, W., Manalo, A. C., Ozbakkaloglu, T., & Ehsani, M. R. (2022). Flexural behaviour of circular reinforced concrete columns strengthened by glass fibre reinforced polymer wrapping system. Structures, 38, 1326-1348.

  • Pan, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhang, D., & Yang, H. (2021). Effect of polymer and conventional molds on the aesthetical surface quality of concretes. Construction and Building Materials, 302, Article 124375.

  • Parker, E. E., & Moffett, E. W. (1954). Physical properties of polyester resin. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 46(8), 1615-1618.

  • Qin, Y., Zhang, X., Chai, J., Xu, Z., & Li, S. (2019). Experimental study of compressive behavior of polypropylene-fiber-reinforced and polypropylene-fiber-fabric-reinforced concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 194, 216-225.

  • Ramezanianpour, A. A., Esmaeili, M., Ghahari, S. A., & Najafi, M. H. (2013). Laboratory study on the effect of polypropylene fiber on durability, and physical and mechanical characteristic of concrete for application in sleepers. Construction and Building Materials, 44, 411-418.

  • Rebeiz, K. S. (1995). Time-temperature properties of polymer concrete using recycled PET. Cement and Concrete Composites, 17, 119–124.

  • Rebeiz, K. S. (1996). Precast use of polymer concrete using unsaturated polyester resin based on recycled PET waste. Construction and Building Materials, 10(3), 215-220.

  • Ribeiro, M. C. S., Nóvoa, P. R., Ferreira, A. J. M., & Marques, A. T. (2004). Flexural performance of polyester and epoxy polymer mortars under severe thermal conditions. Cement and Concrete Composites, 26(7), 803-809.

  • Sanjith, J., Kiran, B. M., Chethan, G., & N, M. K. K. (2015). A study on mechanical properties of latex modified high strength concrete using bottom ash as a replacement for fine aggregate. International Journal, 3(6), 114-121.

  • Saribiyik, M., Piskin, A., & Saribiyik, A. (2013). The effects of waste glass powder usage on polymer concrete properties. Construction and Building Materials, 47, 840-844.

  • Scope, C., Vogel, M., & Guenther, E. (2021). Greener, cheaper, or more sustainable: Reviewing sustainability assessments of maintenance strategies of concrete structures. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 26, 838-858.

  • Song, P. S., Hwang, S., & Sheu, B. C. (2005). Strength properties of nylon- and polypropylene-fiber-reinforced concretes. Cement and Concrete Research, 35(8), 1546-1550.

  • Supian, A. B. M., Sapuan, S. M., Jawaid, M., Zuhri, M. Y. M., Ilyas, R. A., & Syamsir, A. (2022). Crashworthiness response of filament wound kenaf/glass fibre-reinforced epoxy composite tubes with influence of stacking sequence under intermediate-velocity impact load. Fibers and Polymers, 23(1), 222-233.

  • Teixeira, E. R., Camões, A., & Branco, F. G. (2022). Synergetic effect of biomass fly ash on improvement of high-volume coal fly ash concrete properties. Construction and Building Materials, 314, Article 125680.

  • Varun, B. K., & Kumar, C. A. (2021). Flexural and shear characteristics of polymer modified high volume fly ash concrete. Materials Today: Proceedings, 46, 289-293.

  • Yin, S. (2015). Development of Recycled Polypropylene Plastic Fibres to Reinforce Concrete. Springer.