e-ISSN 2231-8526
ISSN 0128-7680

Home / Regular Issue / JST Vol. 32 (2) Mar. 2024 / JST-4228-2023


Physical Properties of Full-ripe Dabai (Canarium odontophyllum miq. Variety Song) at Different Fractions

Nur Afiqah Hani Abdul Rashid, Rosnah Shamsudin, Siti Hajar Ariffin, Wan Nor Zanariah Zainol@Abdullah and Puteri Nurain Megat Ahmad Azman

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 32, Issue 2, March 2024


Keywords: Canarium odontophyllum, correlations, fractions, physical properties

Published on: 26 March 2024

Dabai fruit is an exotic and seasonal fruit in Sarawak. Among the varieties available, the Song variety was chosen due to better taste and high demand amongst local consumers. This study determined the physical properties of dabai (Song variety) at three different fractions: whole fruit, nut, and kernel. According to the results, whole fruit had the highest values in geometric mean diameter (27.86 mm), volume (12.70 cm3), mass (13.89 g), surface area (2442.60 mm2) and angle of repose (39.06°) when compared to nut and kernel. Bulk density of dabai nut reached the highest with the value of 0.63 gcm-3. Kernel had the highest percentage of porosity (80.50) compared to others. The correlations of physical properties between whole fruit, nut and kernel were further analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The findings can potentially be useful in the design of handling and processing equipment.

  • Abdul-Hamid, N. A., Mustaffer, N. H., Maulidiani, M., Mediani, A., Ismail, I. S., Tham, C. L., Shadid, K., & Abas, F. (2020). Quality evaluation of the physical properties, phytochemicals, biological activities and proximate analysis of nine Saudi date palm fruit varieties. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 19(2), 151-160.

  • Altuntaş, E., & Yildiz, M. (2007). Effect of moisture content on some physical and mechanical properties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) grains. Journal of Food Engineering, 78(1), 174-183.

  • Ariffin, S. H., Shamsudin, R., & Tawakkal, I. S. M. A. (2020). Dabai fruit: Postharvest handling and storage. Advances in Agricultural and Food Research Journal, 1(2), 1-12.

  • Asoiro, F. U., Ezeoha, S. L., Ugwu, C. B., & Ezenne, G. I. (2017). Physical properties of unshelled, shelled and kernel of velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense) fruit from Nigeria. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 5, 1-10.

  • Aydin, C. (2003). Physical properties of almond nut and kernel. Journal of Food Engineering, 60(3), 315-320.

  • Azman, A. P. N. M., Shamsudin, R., Man, H. C., & Yaacob, M. E. (2020). Some physical properties and mass modelling at different maturity of pepper berries (Piper Nigrum L.) variety Kuching. Process, 8, 1-24.

  • Binoj, J. S., Raj, R. E., Sreenivasan, V. S., & Thusnavis, G. R. (2016). Morphological, physical, mechanical, chemical and thermal characterization of sustainable Indian Areca fruit husk fibers (Areca Catechu L.) as potential alternate for hazardous synthetic fibers. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 13(1), 156-165.

  • Burubai, W., & Amber, B. (2014). Some physical properties and proximate composition of Ipoli fruits. Journal of Food Processing & Technology, 5(7), 1-5.

  • Chua, H. P., Nicholas, D., & Yahya, M. N. A. (2015). Physical properties and nutritional values of dabai fruit (Canarium odontophyllum) of different genotypes. Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science, 43(1), 1-10.

  • Ding, P., & Tee, Y. K. (2011). Physicochemical characteristics of dabai (Canarium odontophyllum Miq.) fruit. Fruits, 66(1), 47-52.

  • Ebrahimi, A., Zarei, A., Fatahi, R., & Varnamkhasti, M. G. (2009). Study on some morphological and physical attributes of walnut used in mass models. Scientia Horticulturae, 121(4), 490-494.

  • Ehiem, J. C., Ndirika, V. I. O., & Onwuka, U. N. (2016). Effect of moisture content on some physical properties of Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. fruits. Research in Agricultural Engineering, 62(4), 162-169.

  • Ehiem, J. C., Ndirika, V. I. O., Onwuka, U. N., Gariepy, Y., & Raghavan, V. (2019). Water absorption characteristics of Canarium Schweinfurthii fruits. Information Processing in Agriculture, 6(3), 386-395.

  • Gallegos, R. K. B., Suministrado, D. C., Amongo, R. M. C., & Madlangbayan, M. S. (2013). Some physical and mechanical properties of pili (Canarium ovatum Engl. cv. Katutubo) nut as a function of nut moisture. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 96(1), 66-74.

  • Ghadge, N. P., & Prasad, K. (2012). Some physical properties of rice kernels: Variety PR-106. Journal of Food Processing & Technology, 3(8), Article 1000175.

  • Hady, N. S. (2021, January 31). High prices no issue for dabai lovers. New Sarawak Tribune.

  • Kashaninejad, M., Mortazavi, A., Safekordi, A., & Tabil, L. G. (2006). Some physical properties of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut and its kernel. Journal of Food Engineering, 72(1), 30-38.

  • Khoshnam, F., Tabatabaeefar, A., Varnamkhasti, M. G., & Borghei, A. (2007). Mass modeling of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit with some physical characteristics. Scientia Horticulturae, 114, 21-26.

  • Liu, Z. M. S. (2011). Measuring the Angle of Repose of Granular Systems using Hollow Cylinders. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  • Milošević, T., Milošević, N., Glišic, I., & Glišic, I. S. (2014). Determination of size and shape properties of apricots using multivariate analysis. Acta Scientiarum Polonorium, Hortorum Cultus, 13(5), 77-90.

  • Mohsenin, N. N. (1986). Structure, physical characteristics and mechanical properties. In Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials (pp. 66-74). Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.

  • Prasad, K. N., Chew, L. Y., Khoo, H. E., Yang, B., Azlan, A., & Ismail, A. (2011). Carotenoids and antioxidant capacities from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. fruit. Food Chemistry, 124(4), 1549-1555.

  • Sessiz, A., Esgici, R., & Kizil, S. (2007). Moisture-dependent physical properties of caper (Capparis ssp.) fruit. Journal of Food Engineering, 79(4), 1426-1431.

  • Sirisomboon, P., Kitchaiya, P., Pholpho, T., & Mahuttanyavanitch, W. (2007). Physical and mechanical properties of Jatropha curcas L. fruits, nuts and kernels. Biosystems Engineering, 97, 201-207.

  • Torres, I. D. A., Herrera, J. J. C., & Tascón, C. E. O. (2012). Physical and mechanical properties correlation of coffee fruit (Coffea arabica) during its ripening. Dyna, 79(172), 148-155.

  • Yang, X. H., Deng, L. Z., Mujumdar, A. S., Xiao, H. W., Zhang, Q., & Kan, Z. (2018). Evolution and modeling of colour changes of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during hot air drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 231, 101-108.

ISSN 0128-7680

e-ISSN 2231-8526

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles