e-ISSN 2231-8526
ISSN 0128-7680

Home / Regular Issue / JST Vol. 47 (2) May. 2024 / JTAS-2894-2023


The Effect of Inulin Substitution as A Fat Replacer on Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Muffins

Azizah Mahmood, Nur Nabilah Mohamad Napi and Nizaha Juhaida Mohamad

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 47, Issue 2, May 2024


Keywords: Bakery products, fat replacer, nutritional content, physicochemical, sensory properties

Published on: 30 May 2024

The increasing rates of obesity and related health problems are largely attributed to the excessive consumption of high-fat foods. Thus, a fat substitute is proposed to replace the same functions of fats in food products. This study explored the potential of inulin as a fat substitute to produce low-fat muffins. Five batches of muffins, each with varying levels of inulin replacing oil (ranging from 0 to 100%), were prepared to examine how this substitution would impact the physicochemical and sensory properties of the muffins. Calorie content was determined using a bomb calorimeter, whilst the moisture, fat and fibre content were determined based on the AOAC International standard method. The muffin’s texture was analysed using a texture analyser, and the height was measured by calculating the average of different parts of the muffin. The acceptance level of muffins was conducted using a 9-point Hedonic scale. The addition of 15% inulin reduced the fat content by 68.05% and calories by 12.63% compared to the control without significantly affecting the physicochemical properties and sensory acceptability. Additionally, inulin provided the advantage of increasing fibre content by 82.76% when compared to the control sample. Increasing the amount of inulin also increased height and improved the aerated structure of muffins. The study provides evidence for the effectiveness of inulin as a fat replacer, which can help produce low-fat food products with good functional properties and nutritive value for health.

  • Ahmed, W., & Rashid, S. (2019). Functional and therapeutic potential of inulin: A comprehensive review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 59(1), 1–13.

  • Arifin, N., Siti Nur Izyan, M. A., & Huda-Faujan, N. (2019). Physical properties and consumer acceptability of basic muffin made from pumpkin puree as butter replacer. Food Research, 3(6), 840–845.

  • Barroso, T. A., Marins, L. B., Alves, R., Gonçalves, A. C. S., Barroso, S. G., & de Souza Rocha, G. (2017). Association of central obesity with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors. International Journal of Cardiovascular Sciences, 30(5), 416-424.

  • Basolo, A., Parrington, S., Ando, T., Hollstein, T., Piaggi, P., & Krakoff, J. (2020). Procedures for measuring excreted and ingested calories to assess nutrient absorption using bomb calorimetry. Obesity, 28(12), 2315–2322.

  • Bayarri, S., González-Tomás, L., Hernando, I., Lluch, M. A., & Costell, E. (2011). Texture perceived on inulin-enriched low-fat semisolid dairy desserts. rheological and structural basis. Journal of Texture Studies, 42(3), 174–184.

  • Bender, A. B. B., Speroni, C. S., Salvador, P. R., Loureiro, B. B., Lovatto, N. M., Goulart, F. R., Lovatto, M. T., Miranda, M. Z., Silva, L. P., & Penna, N. G. (2017). Grape pomace skins and the effects of its inclusion in the technological properties of muffins. Journal of Culinary Science and Technology, 15(2), 143–157.

  • Bojnanska, T., Tokar, M., & Vollmannova, A. (2015). Rheological parameters of dough with inulin addition and its effect on bread quality. Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 602, No. 1, p. 012015). IOP Publishing.

  • Chaito, C., Judprasong, K., & Puwastien, P. (2016). Inulin content of fortified food products in Thailand. Food Chemistry, 193, 102–105.

  • Colla, K., Costanzo, A., & Gamlath, S. (2018). Fat replacers in baked food products. Foods, 7(12), 192.

  • Gao, J., Brennan, M. A., Mason, S. L., & Brennan, C. S. (2016). Effect of sugar replacement with stevianna and inulin on the texture and predictive glycaemic response of muffins. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(9), 1979–1987.

  • Gisslen, W. (2016). Professional baking (7th ed.). John Wiley & Sons.

  • Harastani, R., James, L. J., Ghosh, S., Rosenthal, A. J., & Woolley, E. (2021). Reformulation of muffins using inulin and green banana flour: Physical, sensory, nutritional and shelf-life properties. Foods, 10(8), 1883.

  • Horwitz, W. (Ed.). (2006). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (18th ed.). AOAC.

  • Khramova, V. N., Khrapova, E. V., Gorlov, I. F., Knyazhechenko, O. A., Khramova, Y. I., Burdina, A. N., & Chekhova, E. A. (2021). Development of prebiotic-rich sausage breads with reduced calories. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 677, No. 3, p. 032036). IOP Publishing.

  • Kraus, A. (2015). Development of functional food with the participation of the consumer. Motivators for consumption of functional products. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 39(1), 2–11.

  • Liu, J., Luo, D., Chen, R., Xu, B., & Liu, J. (2016). Effects of short-chain inulin on quality of chinese steamed bread. Journal of Food Quality, 39(4), 255–263.

  • Majzoobi, M., Mohammadi, M., Mesbahi, G., & Farahnaky, A. (2018). Feasibility study of sucrose and fat replacement using inulin and rebaudioside A in cake formulations. Journal of Texture Studies, 49(5), 468–475.

  • Martínez-Cervera, S., de la Hera, E., Sanz, T., Gómez, M., & Salvador, A. (2013). Effect of nutriose on rheological, textural and sensorial characteristics of spanish muffins. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6, 1990–1999.

  • Meyer, D., Bayarri, S., Tárrega, A., & Costell, E. (2011). Inulin as texture modifier in dairy products. Food Hydrocolloids, 25(8), 1881–1890.

  • Moghadam, B. E., Keivaninahr, F., Fouladi, M., Mokarram, R. R., & Nazemi, A. (2019). Inulin addition to yoghurt: Prebiotic activity, health effects and sensory properties. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 72(2), 183–198.

  • Mozaffarian, D., Rosenberg, I., & Uauy, R. (2018). History of modern nutrition science — Implications for current research, dietary guidelines, and food policy. BMJ, 361, k2392.

  • NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. (2017). Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: A pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults. Lancet, 390(10113), 2627–2642.

  • Ng, F. S. K., Chiang, J. H., Ng, G. C. F., Lee, C. S. H., & Henry, C. J. (2021). Influence of inulin–konjac suspension as a fat replacer in baked muffins and its impact on textural and oxidative stability upon storage. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 45(10), e15769.

  • Ren, Y., Song, K.-Y., & Kim, Y. (2020). Physicochemical and retrogradation properties of low‐fat muffins with inulin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as fat replacers. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 44(10), e14816.

  • Renzyaeva, T. V. (2013). On the role of fats in baked flour goods. Food and Raw Materials, 1(1), 19-25.

  • Rios, R. V., Pessanha, M. D. F., de Almeida, P. F., Viana, C. L., & da Silva Lannes, S. C. (2014). Application of fats in some food products. Food Science and Technology, 34(1), 3–15.

  • Rodríguez-García, J., Puig, A., Salvador, A., & Hernando, I. (2012). Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: Structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties. Journal of Food Science, 77(2), C189–C197.

  • Rodríguez-García, J., Salvador, A., & Hernando, I. (2014). Replacing fat and sugar with inulin in cakes: Bubble size distribution, physical and sensory properties. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7, 964–974.

  • Sayed, H. S., & Khalil, S. R. (2017). Effect of chicory inulin extract as a fat replacer on texture and sensory properties of cookies. Middle East Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(1), 168–177.

  • Schoenlechner, R., Mandala, I., Kiskini, A., Kostaropoulos, A., & Berghofer, E. (2010). Effect of water, albumen and fat on the quality of gluten-free bread containing amaranth. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45(4), 661–669.

  • Shoaib, M., Shehzad, A., Omar, M., Rakha, A., Raza, H., Sharif, H. R., Shakeel, A., Ansari, A., & Niazi, S. (2016). Inulin: Properties, health benefits and food applications. Carbohydrate Polymers, 147, 444–454.

  • Soh, J. I. X., Wilian, M., & Yan, S. W. (2021). Inulin enhances nutritional, sensorial and technological characteristics of synbiotic yogurt drink. British Food Journal, 123(7), 2571–2581.

  • Wang, L., Yang, H., Huang, H., Zhang, C., Zuo, H.-X., Xu, P., Niu, Y.-M., & Wu, S.-S. (2019). Inulin-type fructans supplementation improves glycemic control for the prediabetes and type 2 diabetes populations: Results from a GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trials. Journal of Translational Medicine, 17, 410.

  • Wei, W., Wong, C. C., Jia, Z., Liu, W., Liu, C., Ji, F., Pan, Y., Wang, F., Wang, G., Zhao, L., Chu, E. S. H., Zhang, X., Sung, J. J. Y., & Yu, J. (2023). Parabacteroides distasonis uses dietary inulin to suppress NASH via its metabolite pentadecanoic acid. Nature Microbiology, 8, 1534–1548.

  • Zahn, S., Pepke, F., & Rohm, H. (2010). Effect of inulin as a fat replacer on texture and sensory properties of muffins. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45(12), 2531–2537.

  • Ziobro, R., Korus, J., Juszczak, L., & Witczak, T. (2013). Influence of inulin on physical characteristics and staling rate of gluten-free bread. Journal of Food Engineering, 116(1), 21–27.

ISSN 0128-7680

e-ISSN 2231-8526

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles