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Migration and Farmer Household Livelihood Strategies: Factors Influencing the Decision to Migrate

Rani Andriani Budi Kusumo, Ganjar Kurnia, Iwan Setiawan and Riwanto Tirtosudarmo

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 31, Issue 1, March 2023


Keywords: Farmer, household, livelihood, migration

Published on: 17 March 2023

West Java is one of the provinces in Indonesia with a high percentage of poor farmer’s households. Furthermore, migration is often associated with economic conditions and is carried out by farmer’s households as a livelihood strategy to cope with poverty and vulnerability. This research aims to describe the migration carried out by farmer’s households and to analyze the factors influencing the decision of members to migrate. This study relies on longitudinal data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey in 2007 and 2014 to evaluate the migration phenomenon that occurred from 2007 to 2014. The respondents are members of farmer’s households in West Java Province, a total of 615 individuals, including 89 migrants and 526 non-migrants. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used to answer the research objectives. The results showed that respondents’ age, perceived current living conditions, and ability to meet children’s needs significantly and negatively affect the decision to migrate; meanwhile, crop failure significantly and positively affects the decision to migrate. In the face of limited financial resources and vulnerabilities, farmer households allocate productive human resources to migrate and earn a living outside their village. Further research can be directed to provide a broader picture of migration carried out by farmer households by analyzing macro conditions that affect their livelihood. The government can play a role in formulating an economic and social reintegration strategy. Hence, the remittances obtained by migrants can ensure sustainable livelihoods and contribute to agricultural development.

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