e-ISSN 2231-8526
ISSN 0128-7680

Home / Regular Issue / JST Vol. 45 (4) Nov. 2022 / JTAS-2475-2022


Effects of Ultrasound and Steam Explosion Treatments on the Physicochemical Properties of Rice Bran Fibre

Nor Akma Ismail and Jian Zhao

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 45, Issue 4, November 2022


Keywords: Fibre, physicochemical, pretreatment, rice bran, steam explosion, ultrasound

Published on: 4 November 2022

Rice bran (RB) is an underutilised fibre source due to undesirable effects when incorporated into food products. Thus, this study aims to improve the physicochemical properties of RB by using ultrasound (US) and steam explosion (SE) treatments, making it more usable in food applications. The US treatment of unpurified RB resulted in inconsistent average particle size, water binding capacity (WBC), and swelling capacity (SC). The bulk density (BD) decreased while the oil binding capacity (OBC) increased as the amplitude and time increased. While the purified rice bran resulted in decreased average particle size and BD; and increased WBC, SC, and OBC. The surface microstructure of the unpurified and purified rice bran became more porous, and the colour of the RB was darkened proportionally to the intensity of US treatment. The average particle size of unpurified increased while the purified RB increased after steam explosion treatment regardless of the intensity. The SE treatment also decreased WBC and SC of unpurified and purified RB, but no changes were observed on the surface microstructure of both samples. The BD of unpurified RB decreased, while the BD of purified RB increased after SE treatment. The SE treatment also resulted in a decrease in the OBC of purified RB, but no significant (p > 0.05) improvement was observed in the OBC of unpurified RB. Ultrasound brought these changes in the two treatments more effectively than steam explosion. The alteration of physicochemical properties of RB by the US and SE treatment in this study will allow it to be more applicable in the formulation of food products.

  • Abdul-Hamid, A., & Luan, Y. S. (2000). Functional properties of dietary fibre prepared from defatted rice bran. Food Chemistry, 68(1), 15–19.

  • Beck, S., Bouchard, J., & Berry, R. (2012). Dispersibility in water of dried nanocrystalline cellulose. Biomacromolecules, 13(5), 1486–1494.

  • Blackwood, A. D., Salter, J., Dettmar, P. W., & Chaplin, M. F. (2000). Dietary fibre, physicochemical properties and their relationship to health. Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 120(4), 242–247.

  • Brodeur, G., Yau, E., Badal, K., Collier, J., Ramachandran, K. B., & Ramakrishnan, S. (2011). Chemical and physicochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass: A review. Enzyme Research, 2011, 787532.

  • Chaplin, M. F. (2003). Fibre and water binding. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62(1), 223–227.

  • Chater, P. I., Wilcox, M. D., Pearson, J. P., & Brownlee, I. A. (2015). The impact of dietary fibres on the physiological processes governing small intestinal digestive processes. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre, 6(2), 117–132.

  • Chau, C. F., Wang, Y. T., & Wen, Y. L. (2007). Different micronization methods significantly improve the functionality of carrot insoluble fibre. Food Chemistry, 100(4), 1402–1408.

  • Chau, C. F., Wen, Y. L., & Wang, Y. T. (2006). Improvement of the functionality of a potential fruit insoluble fibre by micron technology. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 41(9), 1054–1060.

  • Chen, J., Gao, D., Yang, L., & Gao, Y. (2013). Effect of microfluidization process on the functional properties of insoluble dietary fiber. Food Research International, 54(2), 1821–1827.

  • Chinma, C. E., Ramakrishnan, Y., Ilowefah, M., Hanis-Syazwani, M., & Muhammad, K. (2015). Properties of cereal brans: A review. Cereal Chemistry, 92(1), 1–7.

  • Daou, C., & Zhang, H. (2011). Physico-chemical properties and antioxidant activities of dietary fiber derived from defatted rice bran. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 3(5), 339–347.

  • Daou, C., & Zhang, H. (2012). Study on functional properties of physically modified dietary fibres derived from defatted rice bran. Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(9), 85–97.

  • Davidson, M. H., & McDonald, A. (1998). Fiber: Forms and functions. Nutrition Research, 18(4), 617–624.

  • Ebringerová, A., & Hromádková, Z. (2010). An overview on the application of ultrasound in extraction, separation and purification of plant polysaccharides. Open Chemistry, 8(2), 243–257.

  • Elleuch, M., Bedigian, D., Roiseux, O., Besbes, S., Blecker, C., & Attia, H. (2011). Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing: Characterisation, technological functionality and commercial applications: A review. Food Chemistry, 124(2), 411–421.

  • Ghosh, M. (2007). Review on recent trends in rice bran oil processing. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 84(4), 315–324.

  • Gupta, P., & Premavalli, K. S. (2010). Effect of particle size reduction on physicochemical properties of ashgourd (Benincasa hispida) and radish (Raphanus sativus) fibres. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 61(1), 18–28.

  • Hansawasdi, C., & Kurdi, P. (2017). Potential prebiotic oligosaccharide mixtures from acidic hydrolysis of rice bran and cassava pulp. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 72(4), 396–403.

  • Hou, F., Wu, Y., Kan, L., Li, Q., Xie, S., & Ouyang, J. (2016). Effects of ultrasound on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of chestnut polysaccharide. International Journal of Food Engineering, 12(5), 439–449.

  • Hromádková, Z., Ebringerová, a., & Valachovič, P. (2002). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of water-soluble polysaccharides from the roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.). Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 9(1), 37–44.

  • Hu, R., Zhang, M., Adhikari, B., & Liu, Y. (2015). Effect of homogenization and ultrasonication on the physical properties of insoluble wheat bran fibres. International Agrophysics, 29(4), 423–432.

  • Huang, C. C., Chen, Y. F., & Wang, C. C. R. (2010). Effects of micronization on the physico-chemical properties of peels of three root and tuber crops. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90(5), 759–763.

  • Jenkins, D. J. A., Wolever, T. M. S., Leeds, A. R., Gasull, M. A., Haisman, P., Dilawari, J., Goff, D. V, Metz, G. L., & Alberti, K. G. M. M. (1978). Dietary fibres , fibre analogues and glucose tolerance , importance of viscosity. British Medical Journal, 1(6124), 1392–1394.

  • Jiang, S.-T., & Guo, N. (2016). The steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat bran. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 38(2), 295–299.

  • Kaur, A., Jassal, V., Thind, S. S., & Aggarwal, P. (2012). Rice bran oil an alternate bakery shortening. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49(1), 110–114.

  • Kuan, Y.-H., & Liong, M. T. (2008). Chemical and physicochemical characterization of agrowaste fibrous materials and residues. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(19), 9252–9257.

  • Kurek, M. A., Wyrwisz, J., Karp, S., Brzeska, M., & Wierzbicka, A. (2017). Comparative analysis of dough rheology and quality of bread baked from fortified and high-in-fiber flours. Journal of Cereal Science, 74, 210–217.

  • Lebesi, D. M., & Tzia, C. (2012). Use of endoxylanase treated cereal brans for development of dietary fiber enriched cakes. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 13, 207–214.

  • Liu, Y., Fan, C., Tian, M., Yang, Z., Liu, F., & Pan, S. (2017). Effect of drying methods on physicochemical properties and in vitro hypoglycemic effects of orange peel dietary fiber. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 41(6), e13292.

  • Liu, Z., Zhang, M., & Wang, Y. (2016). Drying of restructured chips made from the old stalks of Asparagus officinalis: Impact of different drying methods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 96(8), 2815–2824.

  • Mora, Y. N., Contreras, J. C., Aguilar, C. N., Meléndez, P., Garza, I. D. La, & Rodríguez, R. (2013). Chemical composition and functional properties from different sources of dietary fiber. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 1(3), 27–33.

  • Qi, J., Li, Y., Masamba, K. G., Shoemaker, C. F., Zhong, F., Majeed, H., & Ma, J. (2016). The effect of chemical treatment on the In vitro hypoglycemic properties of rice bran insoluble dietary fiber. Food Hydrocolloids, 52, 699–706.

  • Qi, J., Yokoyama, W., Masamba, K. G., Majeed, H., Zhong, F., & Li, Y. (2015). Structural and physico-chemical properties of insoluble rice bran fiber: Effect of acid–base induced modifications. RSC Advances, 5(97), 79915–79923.

  • Rafe, A., Sadeghian, A., & Zohreh, S. (2017). Physicochemical, functional, and nutritional characteristics of stabilized rice bran form tarom cultivar. Food Science and Nutrition, 5(3), 407–414.

  • Raghavendra, S. N., Ramachandra Swamy, S. R., Rastogi, N. K., Raghavarao, K. S. M. S., Kumar, S., & Tharanathan, R. N. (2006). Grinding characteristics and hydration properties of coconut residue: A source of dietary fiber. Journal of Food Engineering, 72(3), 281–286.

  • Ranasalva, N., & Visvanathan, R. (2014). Development of bread from fermented pearl millet flour. Journal of Food Processing and Technology, 5(5), 1000327.

  • Robertson, J. A., Dysseler, Francois D. de Monredon, P., Guillon, F., Amado, R., & Thibault, J.-F. (2000). Hydration properties of dietary fibre and resistant starch: A European collaborative study. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 33(2), 72–79.

  • Rosell, C. M. (2011). The science of doughs and bread quality. Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention, 2011, 3-14.

  • Rosell, C. M., & Santos, E. (2010). Impact of fibers on physical characteristics of fresh and staled bake off bread. Journal of Food Engineering, 98(2), 273–281.

  • Rosell, C. M., Santos, E., & Collar, C. (2010). Physical characterization of fiber-enriched bread doughs by dual mixing and temperature constraint using the Mixolab®. European Food Research and Technology, 231, 535–544.

  • Sabanis, D., Lebesi, D., & Tzia, C. (2009). Effect of dietary fibre enrichment on selected properties of gluten-free bread. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 42(8), 1380–1389.

  • Sairam, S., Gopala Krishna, A. G., & Urooj, A. (2011). Physico-chemical characteristics of defatted rice bran and its utilization in a bakery product. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48(4), 478–483.

  • Saunders, R. M. (1985). Rice bran: Composition and potential food uses. Food Reviews International, 1(3), 465-495.

  • Sharif, M. K., Butt, M. S., Anjum, F. M., & Khan, S. H. (2014). Rice bran: A novel functional ingredient. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 54(6), 807–816.

  • Shen, M., Ge, Y., Kang, Z., Quan, Z., Wang, J., Xiao, J., Wang, W., & Cao, L. (2019). Yield and physicochemical properties of soluble dietary fiber extracted from untreated and steam explosion-treated black soybean hull. Journal of Chemistry, 2019, 9736479.

  • Stephen, A. M., & Cummings, J. H. (1979). Water-holding by dietary fiber in vitro and its relationship to fecal bulking in man. Gut, 20(8), 722-729.

  • Sumari, S., Roesyadi, A., & Sumarno, S. (2013). Effects of ultrasound on the morphology, particle size, crystallinity, and crystallite size of cellulose. Scientific Study and Research: Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology, Food Industry, 14(4), 229–239.

  • Takahashi, T., Furuichi, Y., Mizuno, T., Kato, M., Tabara, A., Kawada, Y., Hirano, Y., Kubo, K. Y., Onozukac, M., & Kurita, O. (2009). Water-holding capacity of insoluble fibre decreases free water and elevates digesta viscosity in the rat. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89(2), 245–250.

  • Ulbrich, M., & Flöter, E. (2014). Impact of high pressure homogenization modification of a cellulose based fiber product on water binding properties. Food Hydrocolloids, 41, 281–289.

  • Uraipong, C., & Zhao, J. (2016). Rice bran protein hydrolysates exhibit strong in vitro α-amylase, β-glucosidase and ACE-inhibition activities. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 96(4), 1101–1110.

  • Walter, T. (2014). Degradation of gluten in wheat bran and bread drink by means of a proline-specific peptidase. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 4(5), 1000293.

  • Wang, B., Li, D., Wang, L. J., Chiu, Y. L., Chen, X. D., & Mao, Z. H. (2008). Effect of high-pressure homogenization on the structure and thermal properties of maize starch. Journal of Food Engineering, 87(3), 436–444.

  • Wang, T., Raddatz, J., & Chen, G. (2013). Effects of microfluidization on antioxidant properties of wheat bran. Journal of Cereal Science, 58(3), 380–386.

  • Wang, T., Sun, X., Raddatz, J., & Chen, G. (2013). Effects of microfluidization on microstructure and physicochemical properties of corn bran. Journal of Cereal Science, 58(2), 355–361.

  • Wang, T., Sun, X., Zhou, Z., & Chen, G. (2012). Effects of microfluidization process on physicochemical properties of wheat bran. Food Research International, 48(2), 742–747.

  • Wang, W., Zhang, B., Jiang, S., Bai, H., & Zhang, S. (2019). Use of CeO2 nanoparticles to enhance UV-shielding of transparent regenerated cellulose films. Polymers, 11(3), 458.

  • Wang, W., Ma, X., Jiang, P., Hu, L., Zhi, Z., Chen, J., Ding, T., Ye, X., & Liu, D. (2016). Characterization of pectin from grapefruit peel: A comparison of ultrasound-assisted and conventional heating extractions. Food Hydrocolloids, 61, 730–739.

  • Wen, Y., Niu, M., Zhang, B., Zhao, S., & Xiong, S. (2017). Structural characteristics and functional properties of rice bran dietary fiber modified by enzymatic and enzyme-micronization treatments. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 75, 344–351.

  • Ying, Z., Han, X., & Li, J. (2011). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves. Food Chemistry, 127(3), 1273–1279.

  • Yu, Z. Y., Jiang, S. W., Cao, X. M., Jiang, S. T., & Pan, L. J. (2014). Effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on the physical properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L). Schott) pulp. Journal of Food Engineering, 177, 1–8.

ISSN 0128-7680

e-ISSN 2231-8526

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Recent Articles